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The Scientific Revolution
Transcript of The Scientific Revolution
"(The Scientific Revolution) outshines everything since the rise of Christianity and reduces the and to the rank of mere episodes, mere internal displacements. The scientific revolution was the
both of the modern world and the modern mentality."
- Herbert Butterfield
What made the Scientific Revolution so very
to World History?
Understanding the Scientific Revolution requires an acknowledgment of tradition 16th century European conceptions of the universe.
Which we know to be...sub par
Now most European concepts of reality came chiefly from Aristotelian physics, Ptolemaic math, and the Bible.
Remember this guy?
Now considering science as we know is doesn't exist yet, members of the scientific revolution considered themselves to be
, or individuals concerned with the nature of the universe.
Christian theologians such as Thomas Aquinas combined Christian theology with Greek and Roman philosophy.
According to this view the universe =
A motionless earth at the center of the universe
8 - 10 crystal spheres that held the planets and stars
And beyond the 10 sphere was Heaven itself
After much debate most theologians took a very literal interpretation of the bible, and figured it took God
six days to create earth about 6,000 years ago.
Did you Know?
Approximately 40% of Americans today believe in Strict Creationism - Gallup et al, 2010
Aristotle also posited that the celestial spheres were made up of a perfect, "quintessence" or fifth essence.
Luckily for us a Polish clergyman by the name of, Nicolaus Copernicus, (1473 - 1543) helped clear things up.
Now Nicolaus was not initially a rebel or an atheist by any means. In fact it was his desire to explain and thereby glorify God's handiwork which lead him to his new paradigm of the universe
The Heliocentric Theory
Copernicus was sorta pissed off that the Ptolemy's system was occasionally inaccurate which totally detracted from the majesty of a PERFECT being: God
Borrowing from an old greek idea, Nicolaus theorized that perhaps it was the SUN at the center with the earth a satellite.
Unfortunately he still held fast to Aristotle's theory of Celestial spheres.
The Geocentric Theory
Next up: Johannes Kepler
He was a famous German Astronomer who was exceptionally good at math. As a result he formulated three famous laws of planetary movement
Orbits of the planets are the sun were elliptical rather than circular
Planets do not move at a uniform speed in their orbits
Time a planet takes to complete its orbit is precisely related to its distance from the sun
Finally we have our last heavy hitter:
Mathematics Professor at age 25!
He also made one of these!
Formulated the Law of Inertia
Objects in motion will stay in motion unless stopped by an external force
Used it to discover
Four Moons of Jupiter
And the craters of the moon. Definitely NOT perfect like most astronomers thought
While Pope Urban VIII initially allowed him some intellectual freedom, Galileo basically tore Aristotle and Ptolemy apart.
Tried by the papal Inquisition, he was threatened with torture, death, and excommunication, the aging Galileo recanted, "renouncing and cursing" his Copernican errors