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Rule of the Monarchs

Cole Carter

on 3 December 2018

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Transcript of Absolutism

Absolutism- government run by an absolute ruler or authority
What is it?
How did it start?
Period of time falling in line with the Renaissance and following the Age of Exploration of overseas empires and wealth strengthening the Kings
The Divide
European Nations build power
Causes internal conflict
Revolutions/Civil War
Causes external conflict
Religious/Colonial War
Rulers challenge authority
3. England: began developing Limited Monarchy since Magna Carta of 1215 and is slowly
moving toward democracy; trade with new world is making England rich; island
geography provides great defense from Spain & France and encourages a strong navy
which will make England the world superpower until 1918 as Spain declines and France
goes broke and begins French Revolution

a. Henry VIII: asked for Parliament's support of when the Act of Supremacy
created the Church of England

b. Elizabeth: powerful and popular queen for 45 years that established New World
colonies and made England rich/powerful, protected Protestant Netherlands from
Catholic Spain to keep access to continental Europe, defeated the Spanish Armada in
1588, but dies with no heir

c. James I: Scottish Stuart dynasty inherits throne promoting RCC & Absolutism, many
Protestants flee to America to escape the unpopular James

d. Charles I: Parliament demands him sign the Petition of Right, which gives full power
of taxes to Parliament, but Charles refuses to sign and dismisses Parliament so he can
rule as an absolute monarch

e. English Civil War: Parliament forms an army of "roundheads" (disciplined Puritans)
led by Oliver Cromwell to fight Charles's "cavaliers;" Charles is captured and
beheaded which shocked Europe that a "divine right" king could be disposed of
by the people; made Spain and France more resistant to limited monarchy

f. The Commonwealth: Parliament abolishes monarchy and Cromwell attempts to form a republic,
but England is lost after having continuous kings since William-1066

g. The Restoration: Parliament offers Charles II the throne to restore tradition

h. James II: threatens return to RCC and Absolutism

i. Glorious Revolution: Parliament invites William and Mary to rule England on the condition that
they sign the English Bill of Rights which permanently makes
Parliament supreme
Overview - Age of Absolutism
Begins with monarchs Charles V and Phillip II of Spain
Concludes with Catherine the Great of Russia
All monarchs in this Age follow three key principles to success
Three Keys to Success
1. Strong Central Government
-eliminate opposition of policy making
2. Strong Army
-for expansion and protection
3. Follow

-Economic theory
-exports greater than imports
-Strong economy supports rulers
Bell ringer~
Charles V and the Hapsburg Empire
King of Spain
Wealthy from Gold of New World
Defended the Roman Catholic Church
Funded Wars, expansion constant, exhausted
Abdicates position
Gave brother Ferdinand II and son Phillip II own rulings
Phillip II
Phillip II-fought religious wars
Opponents-England and Netherlands
Motive-Elizabeth I stole Spanish Gold
Favors Catholics, she favors Protestants
Sends in
Spanish Armada
Loses to Sir Francis Drake's smaller ships
Navy declines, England's grows
Was a
absolute monarch
complete control over peoples lives
Power was
divine right
Authority came from God
Spanish Decline
Netherlands/Belgium possessions lost after years of conflict, heavy taxes, religious turmoil
Spain's rivals hired pirates ad privateers to loot Spanish gold and new world colonies
Philip II drove Muslims and Jews out
lose skilled artisans
Gold and silver runs out because of wars lost
Empire overall declines
Huguenots (French Protestants vs. Catholics in religious war
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre
Henry IV

brings peace
Edict of Nantes
Recognizes Catholic as religion in France
Allows Huguenots right of worship and political practice
Takes power when Henry IV assassinated
Officially a Catholic Cardinal
Strengthened central government
Put down armies and cities of nobles and Huguenots
Did allow practice of religion
Death means Louis XIV is succesor
Louis XIV
Takes government himself
Believes in divine right like Phillip II
Famous for his L'etat c'est moi" I am the State
Earns nickname as Sun stands at center of universe he stands in center of society
Does not call on Estates General
Instead using
tax collectors, army recruits
Gained army of 300,000 strong best in Europe
Has Jean Baptiste Colbert follow mercantilism economy
Focus on farming, mining, luxury trade (lacemaking)
Louis XIV creates palace houses 10,000
Able to keep watch over government/nobles
French Success and Failure
Louis XIV rules for 72 years, longest monarch reign
French way of life replaces Renaissance way of life
Louis revoked Edict of Nantes
Persecution of Huguenots hurts economy
Spread nation thin with balance of power
French never expand due to English, Dutch, and Spanish conflicts
30 YRS war religious hurts
Peace of Westphalia 1648 concludes
Hapsburgs control Austria
360 German states
Maria Theresa rises in Austria
Maria Theresa appeals to Hungary for army
Puts tax reliefs in for common people
Loses power to Frederick II
Strong willed leader, Joseph II follows expands
Frederick the Great seized power in Austria
Successfully unites Prussia
Create extremely disciplined army
Reorganizes and modernizes Germany
Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
Peter the Great
Throne age of 10....1672-1725
Went in hiding throughout Europe
Learned how to successfully rule
Begins Russia's westernization*
Adapting ideas of technology, culture
Centralized Power
Controlled Russian Orthodox Church
Peter the Great
The Tudors
The Stuarts**
King Henry VIII
Exhausts $$
Fights wars, levies taxes
Elizabeth I
first bring peace
No heir
Ruling family of Scotland
Inherent turbulence with Parliament
James I
Clashes over $$ and foreign policy
Puritans want to purify Church of Catholic principles (dissenters)
Charles I
Imprisoned foes without trial
Forced to sign the Petition of Right
forced Parliament to give consent for raised taxes
Creates enemies when he dissolves/refuses them
Calvinist Scots revolt
Requests support from Parliament
They refuse

Put ministers on trial, executed
Starts English Revolution
Charles leads troops against the House of Commons
Cavaliers vs. Roundheads**
Supporters of Charles I
Supporters of Parliament
Wealthy nobles
Plummed hats, long hair
Well training in dueling
Favored a quick victory
Cut back hair around heads
Country men and manufacturers with deep convictions
Oliver Cromwell
Creates New Model Army and defeats Cavaliers
English Civil War 1642-1649
Charles I to Oliver Cromwell
Charles I tried, executed
England abolishes House of Commons, Church of England, House of Lords
Becomes known as Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell leader
Rules through Army
Lord Protector title
Banishes Catholics to Western Ireland
Puts down
Group believe poor men should have say in government
England Carries On...
Commonwealth Society
Sunday religious
Puritan Based, harsh rule
Dancing, gambling restricted
All should receive education
Marriage based on love, not business
Education encouraged for all
Jews accepted back
Cromwell dies in 1658
Charles II returns as monarch king due to unpopularity of society changes
Glorious Revolution in England
Charles II well liked, a good King
Accepts all faiths, deals with Parliament unlike father
James II
flaunts crown
Appoints Catholic officials to office
Parliament invites (fearful of Catholic Church) James's daughter Mary and husband William of Orange (Dutch) to be rules of England
Bloodless overflow refereed to as
Glorious Revolution
James II
flees to France
William and Mary
Accept Parliaments Bill of Rights
Refuse Catholics to sit on throne
Monarchs can no longer interfere with Parliament
Enforces trial by jury
Habeus Corpus put into place
Cannot be held in prison without crime
Abolishment of excessive fines and cruel/unjust punishment
Limited Monarchy established
Government controls monarchs power
Peter's Empire
Controls the boyars (nobles)
Serve civilian and military jobs
Brings all Russian institutions under his control
Develops mining, textiles, waterworks
Improves Eduction with schools, reduces alphabet
Tortured all of those who resisted
Mixed genders and classes
Desperate search warm water port
Free of ice year round
Never gains one from Ottomans
Engages war with Sweden
Sweden demolished forces though heavily outnumbered
Regroups and defeats them along Baltic Sea
Establishes St. Petersburg
Becomes symbol of modernization
Invites Italians to help design city
Establishes common border with Qing China
Expanded into Alaska and even California
Mixed legacy with forced serfdom, confinement to work
Catherine the Great*
Catherine the Great
Originally German
Embraces Russian Orthodox
Marries heir Peter III
Mysteriously ascends throne
Embraced western ideas
Encouraged French customs, organized court performances
Ruthless leader
Exempted nobles from taxes
Laid down harsh serf conditions
Laid down expansion
Defeats Ottomans, gains warm water port on Black Sea, Russo-Turkish War (1770s)
Agrees to partition (divide up) Poland with Frederick the Great (Germany) and Joseph II (Austria) three times 1772, 93, 95
Avoids war with each other
Poland would not be free until 1919
Four of Five European Powers ruled by monarchs, exception Britain in mid 1700s
whole slide
Thirty Years War
Takes place all throughout Europe
Last of the religious wars
Waged on because of Calvinists
Don't accept Peace of Augsburg

Ivan IV
Ivan the Terrible
First Tsar or czar
Devout Christian
Regionalized and United Russia
Expansion in the Caspian and parts of Siberia
Infamous for outbursts and torture
Took the throne in 1760s
Full transcript