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Theories of Motivation

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Briana Willia

on 16 May 2011

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Transcript of Theories of Motivation

Theories of Motivation Instinct Theory Instincts:
innate tendencies that determine behavior Goal directed Behavior Motivation is the result of biological, genetic programming. Thus, all beings within a species are programmed for the same motivations. motivation to survive Nature vs. Nurture Theorists have never been able to agree on a list of instincts... many instincts are NOT universal and seem to be more dependent on individual differences
example: Jealousy Today...instinct theory has a more biological emphasis for specific motives and not all...like aggression and sex An instinct is a stereotyped behavior...one we engage in automatically, without thought...that is inherited and species-specific. William James, the father of the instinct theory, suggested a list of 20 physical instincts, such as sucking and locomotion, as well as 17 mental instincts, including ones such as curiosity and fearfulness.
A generation later, William McDougall came up with a larger list of instincts, and eventually, the list reached a total of more than 10,000 suggested instincts. Drive-Reduction Theory Drive:
Physiological (controlling body functions) compulsion that we feel a need to satisfy. Examples of proposed drives are for water (thirst) and for food (hunger). Seeking HOMEOSTASIS Hunger Get food Eat Hunger Incentive Theory Incentive:
External goal that has the ability to motivate behavior. This does not mean that it will always motivate behavior, only that it can. need drive behavior Drive theory acts by an internal state pushing you in a specific direction. However, incentive theory acts when an external stimulus pulls you in a certain direction. Cognitive Theory Intrinsic Motivation:
the undertaking of an activity, as a hobby, without external incentive; also, personal satisfaction derived through self-initiated achievement * Acceptance, the need for approval
* Curiosity, the need to learn
* Eating, the need for food
* Family, the need to raise children
* Honor, the need to be loyal to traditional values
* Idealism, the need for social justice
* Independence, the need for individuality
* Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments
* Physical activity, the need for exercise
* Power, the need for influence of will
* Romance, the need for sex
* Saving, the need to collect
* Social contact, the need for friends (peer relationships)
* Status, the need for social standing/importance
* Tranquility, the need to be safe
* Vengeance, the need to strike back/to win Extrinsic Motivation:
motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades
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