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About the Kemp Design Model
Transcript of About the Kemp Design Model
Jerrold Kemp’s instructional design model “...conveys that the design and development process is a continuous cycle that requires constant planning, design, development and assessment to insure effective instruction. The model is systemic and nonlinear and seems to encourage designers to work in all areas as appropriate”
("Instructional Design Models", 2012)
Kemp’s work is continuously reworked, but the earliest record
of his model was published in 1971 in Instructional Design: A plan for unit and course development published by Fearon Publishers.
What must be learned?
How will we know when the required learning has taken place?
What procedures and resources will work best to reach the desired learning levels?
The Kemp model enters around 3 essential questions:
(activities and resources)
(Kemp, 1977, p. 8)
Kemp's essential Questions
His plan consists of 8 elements:
His plan consists of 8 elements:
State instructional objectives for the learner.
Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.
Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.
Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.
Plan the instructional message and delivery.
Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.
Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.
Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.
(Morrison, Ross, Designing effective instruction, 2001, p. 6)
“The use of ovals emphasizes this flexibility visually; the graphical design communicates a continuous non-linear cycle that requires iterative planning, design, development and assessment. The inner oval (surrounding the core) illustrates that revision/formative evaluation activities can be undertaken at each stage of the development process, something that is not always built into other models, usually because of the constraints of time and money.
The outer oval includes a typical post-instruction activity (summative evaluation) and also highlights three elements usually absent from other models – namely project planning, project management, and support services. The latter are required both for the project itself while it is in development, and afterwards to support the actual instruction.”
(Hanley, "Discovering Instructional Design 11: The Kemp Model", 2009)
Model Development Background
Robert Gagné’s foundational work of the 1960s in cognitive science and the systems approach, influenced many models.
Gagne’s main focus was how instruction and learning could be systematically connected to the design of instruction. Kemp discusses this in his book “This method involves the development of an overall plan incorporating the interrelated parts of an instructional process in a sequential pattern. It is called the systems approach to problem- solving.”
“Each of these models are based on a core set of learning phases that include (1) activation of prior experience, (2) demonstration of skills, (3) application of skills, and (4) integration or these skills into real world activities.]”
("Instructional Design", 2014)
(Kemp, 1977, p. 6)
Evaluating the Kemp Model
“The model is particularly useful for developing instructional programs that blend technology, pedagogy and content to deliver effective, inclusive (reliable) and efficient learning.”
Model tends to be classroom-oriented
It can be difficult to complete all 8 elements
The non-linear structure may be confusing for non-experienced designers
It is argued that “learner (and environmental analysis) tend to limit our designs”
The process is flexible:
you can begin with any element and move around, there is no sequence
“there is interdependence among the eight elements”
application and strategy is “heuristic”- it can be modified with each project
Model can be applied to any educational level (Kemp, 1977, p. 8)
(Grant, "Kemp Design Model", 2013)
("Kemp design model", 2007)
The original diagram for the Kemp model was more simple. The circle was replaced by an oval so designers weren't inclined to start from the top (12:00) position and proceed clockwise.
Grant, M. (2013, January 1). Kemp Design Model. Kemp Design Model. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/models/kemp_model.html
Hanley, M. (2009, June 10). E-learning Curve Blog at Edublogs. Elearning Curve Blog at Edublogs RSS. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from http://elearningcurve.edublogs.org/2009/06/10/discovering-instructional-design-11-the-kemp-model/
Instructional design. (2014, May 21). Wikipedia. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_design
Instructional Design Models and Methods | Instructional Design Central. (2012, January 1). Instructional Design Models and Methods | Instructional Design Central. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDC_instructionaldesignmodels.htm#kemp
Kemp, J. E. (1971). Instructional design; a plan for unit and course development (2 ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Fearon Publishers.
Kemp design model. (2007, June 4). - EduTech Wiki. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Kemp_design_model
Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. M. (2001). Designing effective instruction (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.
Kemp states “Planning for student learning should be a challenging, exciting, and gratifying activity” (Kemp, 1971, p.3) , this still holds true, over 40 years later.