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Daily Lives of Athenians and Spartans
Transcript of Daily Lives of Athenians and Spartans
•When babies were born, it was the Spartan soldiers’ responsibility to check the baby. If the baby did not appear healthy and strong, it was taken away and left to die on a hillside or was taken away and trained to be a slave (Helot).
•Babies who passed, were assigned membership in a brotherhood or sisterhood, usually the same to their parents.
•Boys were not fed well as children.
•They were taught to steal, but if they were caught, they were severely beaten.
•The young boys marched without shoes to make them stronger.
When the boys turned seven, they were taken away from their moms and sent to train for battle. Childhood
• Children live with their mothers in the women’s quarter until they are 7 years old.
• The children slept in wicker baskets or wooden cradles.
The boys were the only ones allowed to get an education.
They started school at age seven.
At school, the boys wrote on wax covered paper, stylus. The books were very expensive so it was considered rare.
At age 13, the boys attended a higher level of school. At age 18, the attended military and were able to graduate at age 20. Schools •In Greece, the men ran the government.
•The Athenians held their own Olympic games.
•Women had little freedom as an Athenian.
•Weddings took place in January and they started after dark.
•At the weddings, they play music to scare away evil spirits.
•The weddings were arranged marriage. The father chose the husband for the bride
•The girls had to marry at age 15 and the men they married were twice their age. (so they were 30) Marriage The Greek homes were very plain. They were made of wood, stone, and mud bricks.
•The houses contained a courtyard and two or three rooms.
• As an Athenian, if you were poor, all of the cooking was done over a campfire.
• Instead of having chimneys, they had small vents where the smoke could go out.
•Gynaeceum is the word the Athenians used for the master bedroom.
•Oikos is the word they used for the family dining room. Homes •Just like us, the Athenians ate 3 meals a day.
•In the plains, they had rich soil and along the coast it was poor soil.
•Since the wheat could only be grown in the plains, there was not enough food for everyone in Greece.
•They grew wheat and barley. They grew olives and grape. They like to eat apples, cherries, and apricots.
•Most of the time, the fruits were baked into cakes or pies.
•Green veggies were expensive and very rare.
•They usually drink water and sometimes goat’s milk or fermented honey. Homemade wine was only for the rich.
•Meat was rarely eaten because the animals were mostly used for sacrifices.
•Even though meat was rare, they still liked to hunt and fish.
•Ancient Greeks did not use napkins. Instead, they used pieces of bread and the bread was then given to the dogs. Food •They had religious festivals to honor their gods.
•Dancing was very important in these festivals.
•They went to the gym. It was a large exercising place.
•The exercising place contained changing rooms, baths, and practice rooms.
•They could practice wrestling, boxing, javelin, and discus.
•The Athenians wanted to keep healthy, fit bodies.
•While exercising, they wore no clothes.
•When they were done exercising, they oiled or dusted off their bodies.
•Besides the gym, they went to the theater.
•They also went to the marketplace, agora. It was a place for men. Women and young boys were not allowed until the afternoon.
•Pottery was very important for storage. Additional Entertainment •The lowest class was the urban craftsmen.
•Small farmers were in the middle class.
•At the top were the aristocrats, who owned large estates.
•Democracy was invented in Athens. Classes of People Childhood •Boys were sent to military school as early as six. They lived, trained, and slept in their brotherhood.
•They were taught survival skills to be a great soldier.
•School courses were hard and often painful.
•The boys were taught to read and write, but it was not very important since it was all about warfare in Sparta.
•Between 18 and 20, males had to take a test based on military, leadership, and fitness ability.
• If they did not pass, they became a perioikos(the middle class; were allowed to own property, have business dealings, but had no political rights and were not citizens).
•If the boys passed the test, they become a full citizen and a Spartan soldier.
•The Spartans were not allowed to touch money because it was the job of the middle class. Schools •Spartans spent most of their time in their brotherhood.
•Even if the men were married, they were not allowed to live with their wife or children.
•Women were not given a special celebration on their wedding day.
•The husband and wife had to meet in secret until the husband was 30.
•At 30, the men were able to live in the same house as their wife. Marriage •Greeks wore simple-free flowing clothes.
• Most clothing was made of wool or linen.
•The wool was woven into a lightweight material.
•Most families made their own clothing. The women in the family made them.
•The clothing was decorated to represent the city-state where they lived.
•Tunics called chitons were formed by draping a piece of rectangle-shaped cloth around the body with belts, buttons, or broaches.
•Women in Greece wore their hair long and in braids on top of their heads. This style was held in place with waxes and lotions.
•Men kept their hair very short. Unless they were soldiers, they wore beards. Clothing and Appearance •Greek homes were plain.
•They were built out of wood, mud brick, or stone buildings.
•They had only two or three rooms built around the courtyard.
•Few homes contained chimneys. Instead, they had small vents in the ceilings to allow smoke to go out.
•More expensive homes were located in a different district in the town. Home •Greeks ate three meals a day.
•Breakfast was eaten at sunrise and they ate a small midday snack and a late afternoon meal. The main meal was eaten at the end of the day.
•Greeks made a large variety of breads including milk bread, rye bread, wheaten bread, etc.
•Because the soil was so bad in Greece, there was not a lot of wheat.
•Since there was not a lot of wheat, there was not enough to feed all of the people.
•They grew wheat and barley. They grew olives and grapes. They like to eat apples, cherries, and apricots.
•Green veggies were expensive and very rare. Food •The Greeks had many religious festivals.
•Dance was very important to the Greeks.
•Some of the dances were for men, and others were for women.
•Over 200 dances were performed by the Greeks.
•Dancers were accompanied by lyres (like a harp), flutes, and percussion instruments.
•The Greeks also created many stories.
•Aesop’s Fables were created by and Ancient Greek.
•Agora (marketplace) was for men.
•Young boys and women were not allowed to come until the afternoon.
•Gymnasia (gym) was a large exercise yard surrounded by changing rooms, practice rooms, and baths.
•Greeks spent much of their time exercising in the gym to keep healthy bodies. Additional Entertainment •Freeman-divided into classes
-Lowest class were the thetes (urban craftsmen)
-Middle class were small farmers
-Top class were aristocrats who owned large estates
•Many occupations fell between the classes.
•Metics-free non-citizens-Metics were usually Greeks from other city-states. Classes of People •For the women of the powerful city-state of Athens, clothing was not just a practical necessity or a way of looking good but also served as a visual symbol of their social status.
•Women didn't wear socks because of the climate. They either went barefoot or wore sandals.
•Men wore tunics made of wool or linen and leather sandals, bare legs.
•Men sometimes wore a cloak when cold. Clothing and Appearance Athens and Sparta were the two Greek, leading city states.
The main conflicts between Greece and Sparta were competition for trade and influence.
Athens had a large navy which was obviously an advantage. Sparta and Athens both shared the Greek culture, so there are many similarities throughout the two city-states.
The two political systems the Spartan and Athenians used made their rivalry more intense.
Sparta had a monarchic oligarchy which puts less importance on individuality and more emphasis on intellectual desire.
Athens developed a limiting democracy where males participated throughout Athens.