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Chapter 52

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Zoe Dohm

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 52

- long-term prevailing weather conditions in a particular area.
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Chapter 52: Ecology
Sydney Rushin, Caroline Owens, and Zoe Dohm

6 Types of Ecology
-"concerned with how an organism's
structure, physiology,
meet the challenges imposed by its environment"
-"analyzes factors that affect

and how and why it changes through time"
-"examines how
between species, such as predation and competition, affect community structure and organization"

- Terrestrial
Tropical rain forests
- Aquatic
Streams and Rivers
Biotic vs Abiotic
Biotic factors are factors pertaining to the living organisms in the environment while abiotic factors pertain to the nonliving.
Ecology vs. Environment
Difference: Ecology is the study of the distribution of organisms while environment is a broader study of the organisms' surroundings. Environmentalism is also advocating for the protection of nature.

-The study of the interactions between organisms and the environment.
Important Vocabulary
-"a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area"
-"a group of populations of different species in the same area"
-"a community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which those organisms interact"
-"a mosaic of connected ecosystems"
-"the global ecosystem--the sum of all the planet's ecosystems and landscapes"
6 Types of Ecology Cont.
energy flow
chemical cycling
between organisms and the environment"
-"focuses on the factors controlling
exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms
across multiple ecosystems"
-"examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the
of organisms across the biosphere"
Biotic Factors
Herbivores are biotic factors because they are living organisms and by consuming the producers as part of their diet it affects the population size.
Predators are also biotic factors because they are also living organisms and prey upon other organisms which leads to population decrease in the preyed population.
Abiotic Factors
An abiotic factor is water because water availability is a factor in species distribution because organisms need water or an environment that has their ideal amount of water supply.
Salinity is also an abiotic factor because salt levels affect the water balance of organisms
Macroclimate- patterns on the global, regional, and local level.

Microclimate- very fine patterns.
Mountains and Wind
- found in South Africa, Hungary, Argentina, Uruguay, central North America, and Russia.
- Precipitation is highly seasonal
- Winters are cold and summers are hot.
- Mainly consists of grasses and forbs.
- Bison and wild horses are native.
- A lot of the grassland in North America and Eurasia has been turned into farmland.
Mountains can also affect wind patterns. The wind by the sea is often very cold and as it flows towards the mountains warms. As the air flows up the mountains it cools and there is increased precipitation. As the air flows over the mountain there is less precipitation and the air warms which leads to deserts often.
- Very low precipitation
- Gets very hot and very cold.
- Mostly bare ground, some low scattered vegetation.
- Animals: snakes, lizards, scorpions, ants, beetles, birds, rodents
- Ability to transport water long-distances inables humans to live in deserts.
- Vast open water.
- High oxygen levels and somewhat low nutrient concentrations.
- Covers around 70% of Earth's surface.
Organisms: phytoplankton
- Human Impact: overfishing
Areas on and around the equator
seasonal rainfall with a dry season that can last up to 8-9 months, 30-50 cm per year
warm year-round (24-29 degrees C)
scattered trees (thorny with small leaves), grasses, forbs (mostly all fire-adapted because fires are common during dry seasons/ droughts)
wildebeasts, bison, lions, hyenas, insects (many termites)
evidence of early humans living in savannas
Cattle ranching and too much hunting have led to declines in animal populations

Review Questions
Question One
Which climate is paired with it's correct biome?
a. savanna- low temperature, precipitation uniform during the year.
b. tundra- long summers, mild winters.
c. tropical forests- nearly constant day length and temperature.
d. temperate grasslands- relatively warm winters, most rainfall in summer.

Question Two
State the difference between biotic and abiotic, give one example of each.
Question Three
What are the six types of ecology? Just list the types.
Question Four
What is the difference between microclimate and macroclimate?
Bodies of Water
Ocean currents can either heat or cool the air surrounded the water. These regions near the coast of a cool current are often more cool and misty due to increased precipitation in these areas. Areas near a heated current are more humid and have an increased temperature.
Latitudinal Variation in Sunlight Intensity
Where a region is located determines how much direct sunlight it receives. The extremes, the highest north and the highest south, have a low angle of sunlight which causes less heat and sunlight to be delivered. In the tropics, the areas along the equator, the sun is at a direct angle and these regions have amore intense exposure to the sun.
Along with previously mentioned sunlight intensity, the seasons have an influence of sunlight exposure. As the earth rotates around the sun different regions are exposed.
Air Circulation Precipitation Patterns
High temperature air is close to the earth's surface and evaporates water. The wet air circulates towards either of the poles. Because the tropics are the warmest they have the most precipitation due to the most warm air circulation. The cold air found at the poles flows back towards the equator and the tropic regions.
Global Wind Patterns
The air closest to the surface flows from region to region. As the earth rotates the global air circulation patterns are shifted and goes from a vertical pattern and now flows horizontally- east to west.
Topical forests are found along the equator and have almost constant rainfall. The temperature is very high all year round but because of the constant rainfall and sunlight exposure is a very ideal environment for many plants. This region is home to about 5-30 million types of animals. Humans have communities in these regions.
Tropical Forests
Aquatic Biomes
Ocean biomes cover 75 percent of earth’s surface. Because they have such a large region of the earth it is divided into subcategories. In the overall category of aquatic biomes there are subcategories of freshwater and saltwater but both have different levels of salinity. In each biome there are different zones- photic, aphotic, benthic, abyssal, and benthos zones. These biomes are warmed through thermal sun energy. Included in the aquatic biomes are oceans, rivers, lakes, and many more.
Terrestrial Biomes
Terrestrial biomes are on land and there are distinct boundaries between each biome. Although there are usually distinct boundaries there are ecotones which are areas of integration. Many environmental factors influence this biome such as weather- rain or drought, species inhabiting certain regions, and what region each biome is located to support different types of life.
Question Five
What are key differences between aquatic and terrestrial biomes?
Question six
Briefly describe sunlight intensity and what influences latitudinal variation and seasonal variation have on it.
Question seven
What is the difference between ecology and environmentalism?
Question Eight
Describe the desert biome.
Question nine
What is the relationship between winds and mountains?
Question Ten
True or False
A biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems and landscapes.
Tundras cover 20% of earth's landmass. Tundras have high winds and low temperatures. Winters are long and cold but summers are short with low temperatures. Plants are mostly mosses, grasses, and certain shrubs and trees. There are many predators in this area such as wolves, bears and foxes. There is not much human settling but humans do use it for oil and mineral extraction.
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