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21st Century Literature
Transcript of 21st Century Literature
1900: English is the official medium of instruction in all public schools.
Development of Philippine Literature
From Philippines to the World
21st Century Literature
"The history of a nation can be learned in its constitution its laws, and its political statements. But to know the history of a nation's spirit, you must read its literature." (Croghan, 1977)
Philippine Literature in English reveals the spirit of the Filipino.
Gradually, this literature has learned to express the deepest of human experiences in words that create memorable images.
Importance of Literature
sharing of human experiences
learn what you are and how you have become what you are
learn learn what you might be in the future.
shows how the Filipino differs from others
Development of Philippine Literature
Philippine Literature in English
1. The Early Period
2. The Middle Period
3. The Modern Period
Folk speeches, folk songs, folk narratives and indigenous rituals and mimetic dances that affirm our ties with our Southeast Asian neighbors.
Most seminal of these folk speeches is the riddle which is tigmo in Cebuano, bugtong in Tagalog, paktakon in Ilongo and patototdon in Bicol.
epics and folk tales are varied, exotic and magical. They explain how the world was created, how certain animals possess certain characteristics, why some places have waterfalls, volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna and, in the case of legends, an explanation of the origins of things.
Darangen: (Maranao- Islam) narrates the heroic feats of the Maguindanao people–highlighting the bravery and prowess of the skilled Moro warriors.
Hudhud: (Ifugao) features the characters Aliguyan (Aliguyon), Bugan and their families, and the elements of the early civilization which rose in the mountain province
Biag ni Lam-ang (Ilokano)
Hudhod & Alim (Ifugao)
Kabuniyan & Bendian (Ibaloi, Benguet)
Ibalon & Aslon (Bikol)
Maragtas, Haraya, Lagda & Hinilawod (Bisaya)
Hari sa Bukid (Negros)
Dagoy & Sudsud (Tagbanua of Palawan)
Indarapatra at Sulayman (Maguindanao)
Parang Sabil/ Parang Sabir (Sulu Muslim)
Tatuaang/ Tuwaang (Bagobo)
Ulagingen at Seleh (Manobo)
Numerous newspapers in English were published:
Florante at Laura
Noli Me Tangere
1905: The Philippine Free Press is founded; 1910: College Folio is published at UP; 1920: Phil. Herald/Phil. Magazine (most influential literary Magazine.)
coincided with the American occupation
first teachers were American soldiers
PNS was founded in 1901; UP was founded in 1908
1921: first Filipino novel in English was written by Zoilo Galang – A Child of Sorrow
formal and imitative
fiction is structurally simple
language is easy to understand
moralistic and quite didactic
sense of nationalism is evident
verbose and rhetorical
romantic and melancholic
tendency towards melodrama
continued influence of romanticism and later realism from the United States
literary organizations were formed, e.g. Philippine Book Guild (1936), Philippine Writers’ League (1939), The Veronicans
the Philippine Commonwealth Government was established on July 4, 1935
writers began to explore the idea of searching for a national identity
S.P. Lopez and J.G. Villa clashed over the social function of art and art for art’s sake function of art.
the short story flourished
the first Commonwealth Literary Awards were given in 1940
Philippine Independence was proclaimed on July 4, 1946
Philippine literature in English greatly improved.
journalistic writing and literary criticism emerged
"The most productive of distinctive work in the half century of Filipino writing in English."
recurrent subject matter/themes – rural life, love, self-sacrifice and suffering, novelty of city life, value of education, struggle against poverty
recurrent setting – the province, the barrio, the small town
use of local color
recurrent characters – the barrio lass/lad, the first schooled/educated person in the barrio, the teacher, hardworking farmer/fisherman, ardent lovers, the Filipino expatriate educated in America.
World War II/Japanese occupation
stylistic characteristics – simple structure, simple plots, mild climaxes, explicit symbols, slow pace or movement, abundant description of people and places
reflected Filipino customs, traditions, practices, traits
culture clashes – American vs. Filipino
the first Palanca Memorial Awards were given in 1950; for English and the Tagalog one-act play in 1954.
there was a growing sense of nationalism and deeper search for identity in the 60’s
the Republic Cultural Awards were started in 1960 – 1st winner was N.V.M. Gonzalez
the first Pro Patria awards were presented in 1961 – 1st winners were Jose Garcia Villa, N.V.M. Gonzalez, and Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero
the first Asian Writers’ Conference was held in Baguio in 1962
themes of confusion and violence were evident in the late 60’s and 70’s
Martial Law was declared in Sept. 21 1972.
continued influence of the West upon Phil. Literature was evident
recurrent subject matter – colonial mentality, guerilla and wartime stories, consequences of the war (poverty, disorientation, identity crisis), love, family, death, social problems
recurrent setting – the home, the city, the province, America
recurrent characters – rich/poor people, characters with psychological problems, immigrants in America
Martial Law was lifted in 1981.
themes have changed from sentimentalized romanticism to a more realistic and naturalistic delineation.
1986 EDSA Revolution occurred .
gay and lesbian literature came out
strong feminist tendencies are evident
more social problems are tackled
TV and films have become more popular.
younger writers have entered the literary scene
more literary criticisms have been written
daring or controversial choice of subject matter
very innovative in structure and style
influence of different –isms and literary trends from the West
characters, plot structure and narrative techniques are more complex