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FDR and the New Deal
Transcript of FDR and the New Deal
What is the New Deal?
Relief for the Jobless
Critics of the New Deal
The government had never been more involved in peoples' lives.
Not everyone was happy about it.
Second New Deal
1935: The economy was slow to recover.
Critics wanted FDR to do more.
2nd New Deal Focus: Work Relief
FDR wanted people to work for pay.
Earning money is better than handouts.
FDR and the New Deal
Try something, if it works, keep doing it.
If it doesn't, try something else.
IT DID NOT END THE DEPRESSION.
IT STABILIZED IT AND KEPT IT FROM
It was an ebb and flow of effectiveness
throughout the 30's. There was the
introduction of many new programs.
Assistant Sec. of Navy
Gov. of New York
Good with Press
The Brain Trust
Group of advisers to FDR
Progressives, Professors, Republican, Democrat, Women, African American, etc.
Didn't manipulate, but advised
Emergency Banking Act(Bank Holiday)
-closed all banks for 4 days
-Treasury Dept inspects all banks
-opened good ones, helped reorganize
bad ones, some kept closed
-assured Americans in the safety of banks
-$1 Billion back in banks in one month
-Banking issue solved
-balance the budget
-cut gov't salaries
-cut gov't pensions
Prohibition Repealed - 1933
Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)
Refinanced about 1/5 of all U.S. Mortgages
Get money in the people's hands
so they'll spend it and get it back
into the economy.
FERA: Federal Emergency Relief Administration
-provide cities and states with jobs opportunities
(unskilled jobs in local government)
-jobs were more expensive than the "dole", but
Public Works Administration(PWA)
-public works program to build dams, bridges,
hospitals, and schools
-spend 3.3 million 1st year, and 6 billion overall
-stabilize purchasing power
Civil Works Administration (CWA)
-job creation program
-manual labor jobs for millions
-laid 12 million ft of sewer pipe,
255,000 miles of road, 40,000
schools, 3,700 playgrounds, 1000
-short-lived, too expensive
It doesn't go far enough!
It's only helping the banks and businesses that caused this problem!
The government is too involved!
"Roosevelt is driving this country to destruction!"
Senator Huey Long
The New Deal is too friendly to banks and businesses.
"Share Our Wealth Society"
"Every Man A King!"
$5000 to every family to buy a house
$2500 income a year
Heavy taxes on the wealthy
Father Thomas Coughlin
1/3 of the country listened to the "radio priest"
"Franklin Double-Crossing Roosevelt" wasn't doing enough.
Critical of bankers and business leaders
Criticized Jewish people and lost influence
Dr. Francis Townsend
New Deal didn't do enough for old people
Proposed pension plans for people over 60
FDR eventually used some of these ideas
Tennessee Valley Authority
-emergency relieve with long term social planning
-develop 7 state region, employed 40,000 people to
build dams, move farmers onto better lands, and
-critics said it was local, not national. Power
companies complained about competing with
Works Progress Administration (1935)
Workers built roads, subways, airports, zoos
Paid artists, writers, composers and actors.
8.5 million total Americans (50,000 Kansans)
1/4 of unemployed put to work.
Example: Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Social Security Act (1935)
Pension for people over age 65
How to pay for this? 2% payroll tax
Paving streets in Lawrence
"Pioneers in Kansas" Mural. Wichita Post Office
"Kansas Farming" mural. Wichita Post Office
Post Rock Limestone Water Tower in Paradise, Kansas
"Mennonite Settler" limestone statue in Newton.
WPA sewing class in Topeka
Town Hall in Nicodemus
Social Security Today
1939: Add surviving spouses and children
1954: Add Disability insurance
1983: Full retirement now at age 67
2013: 12.4% payroll tax
The End of the New Deal
Big shift: African-Americans switched their votes to the Democratic Party
The Supreme Court struck down several New Deal programs.
FDR tried to change the way the Courts worked by adding 6 more justices (of his choosing).
"Court packing" made FDR look bad.
1937: The economy kept struggling.
1938: economy improved a bit, but people weren't as excited about FDR as before.
1938 midterm elections:
Republicans made gains in House & Senate.
No more New Deal programs passed after this
The focus switched to what was happening in Europe...
Did FDR's New Deal programs work?
Legacy of the New Deal:
Changed the relationship of citizens and the government
Social Security, FDIC, SEC still exist
Many roads, bridges, dams, buildings
Time Magazine's "Man of the Year" for 1938