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Immigration, Urbanization, and Industry

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Phoebe Fortenberry

on 22 February 2013

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Transcript of Immigration, Urbanization, and Industry

Urban Growth Factories Urbanization evenly distributed in the US
Western Cities: dominant urban cities
San Fransico
Southern Cities: limited growth
New York and Chicago were the "core" of urbanization Mass-Production changed way buisness was conducted
department stores replaced specialty artisan stores
chain stores
canned goods
packaged food
mail-order catalogs
"wish books" Industry, Urbanization & Immigration demographic and economic transformation from 1870-1900

Workforce and workplace changed because of rapid industrial development
Small business--> large factories
Skilled labor--> semi-skilled labor
Agriculture--> industrial power
Immigrants from Europe and Asia, and the countryside increased population in cities from 20% to 40%
shift to heavy industry due to advances in steel production Second Industrial Revoultion Corporation:
a group of buisnessowners that act as a fictional person and thus relieves its individual members of certain legal liabilities
Raises money by selling stock
durability created distinct social classes
raised living standard for and expanded middle class
millionaires Impact of Industrialization fittest and wealthiest survive
the weak and the poor perish
government action can’t change this growing gap between rich and poor was justified by social Darwinism lockouts- closing the factory briefly
blacklists- people who were in unions and under watch
yellow-dog contracts- workers have to sign saying they wont join a union
guards and militia- to put down strikes
court injunctions- against strikes
strikers replaced with "scabs" mangers tried to stop strikers and unions V
l merging of competitors in the same industry Horizontal Integration Factory Life Immigrants immigrants maintained cultural traditions via religion and communial centers
houses of worship
town halls/ meeting places Cultural Connections Immigration By: Phoebe, Layne, Rachel, and Paulina Russian Jews
religious persecution
economic problems
murder of Tzar
violent government attacks
zoned in ghettos Japanese
forced out because of land shortage Mexicans
came looking for work
ranches & farms Chinese
came to work on railroads, mines, & farms
settled on the west coast
"Chinatown" Corporations Push-Pull Immigration PUSH PULL Corporation Ripple Effect capital company expansion more workers new technology urban growth To reduce competition and dominate industry corporations underwent vertical and horizontal integration. I
n consolidating production functions (extracting raw mats, distribution, and marketing) Standard Oil Company (1807) Pepsi-Cola (1902) General Electric Company (1892) Modern corporations transformed the economy Trusts & Monopolies formed to control prices and reduce competition

lead to antitrust and regulatory laws http://www.wataugawatch.net/uploaded_images/images-761324.jpg Between 1870 & 1910 more than 20 million immigrants came to the US Chain Migration immigrating to the US was the fastest way to earn $$$$ 1. poverty
2. overcrowding
3. religious persecution 1. political freedom
2. religious freedom
3. economic opportunities "Birds of Passage" young men who came to work in factories, mining or construction to provide for their families back in their home country

would return when they could bring enough money to support their family ASSIMILATION: losing one culture for another Landsmanshaften: a group who arranged burials, jobs, housing, support for sick poor and elderly Jewish immigrants Japanese Association of America: a group that helped govern over the Japanese community of immigrants in the US, sponsored by Jap. gov., encouraged assimilation lived in poor ethnic neighborhoods Poor people lived closer to the business district
Landlords gained more money by cramming small apartments with many people
Tenements: four-to-six-story apartments built on tiny lots with poor ventilation and lighting
4,000 people could live on one block
New York passed a law to stop this but it didn’t help much
epidemics and diseases spread faster
Cholera, typhoid, and tuberculosis
In these quarters people divided themselves into ethnic groups
in order to maintain language and culture
Opened individual schools, clubs, and even newspapers in close proximity
“Ghettos” gave immigrants and workers a sense of getting closer to achieving the “American Dream” Migration became more popular by the 19th century Immigration: moving from one country to another
Migration: moving around within one's own country Suburbs

Residential neighborhoods
new transportation technology made it easier for people to work farther away from their homes
Suburbs started gaining popularity in the urban middle class after 1870
privacy, taste, and power in living in a suburb
private residences because they could better control the health and cleanness

Kitchen was “organized for expedience and hygiene”
no need for small rooms -> large rooms for family activities
Parlors-->childrens wings, smoking rooms

Women gained a stronger role, not as fragile in society
All suburbs were different

Where people lived and how they spent their time further defined the social classes
people became more materialistic new people led to urban growth! Middle Class Pre-Industrial Revolution:professionals, physicians, lawyers, ministers, educators, editors, merhcants, shoekeeprs, skilled artisans

Post-Industrial Revolution: middle class expands to include more jobs, transportation jobs, industry jobs, corportate jobs

Middle Class transformed America into a consumer society

clock replaced the sun (time)
canned food replaced natural grown food (diet)
telephones replaced letters (communication)

Watched baseball, skating clubs, used streetcars, Lower Class Upper Class lived in ghettos
extremely close quarters
ethnic neighborhoods
worked in factories
recieved menial salaries
worked to support larger families back home
young immigrants
amusment parks held higher positions in society
better jobs
made more money
lived in bigger houses
country clubs- hard to get into
avoided lower classes
ivy league colleges
watched football Families & Women
Urban life changed the family
not so close to extended family
Divorce rates were higher
Less kids, too expensive & not as helpful as they were in the farm Education
more public schools available
growing interest in early education
more universities, especially for women
new books US became the leading industrial power by 1900 natural resources immigration Transportation Network Capital new technology protective tariffs companies and corporations Factories 1/4th of workforce were factory workers Women's Suffarage 1900
-some women could vote
-were gaining control of property after marriage
-temperance movement started, women preffered when men weren't drinking as much dangerous working conditions
no safety equipment
10 hours a day, 7 days a week
low salaries
no benefits
sweatshops: small shops or crammed apartments where workers made garments girls 16 and younger made up garmet buisness
many lost fingers in sewing machine accidents
employed in dangerous industries
coal mining 1900- few states passed laws that regulated child labor but were lax
poor families needed their children to work for additional income CHILD LABOR Women in the Workforce needed the addition income to support their families
working impacted family life
85% were single and under 25
low wages (less than men)
$6.00 compared to a man's $10 or $12
poor working conditions
womens labor unions
better wages, conditions, and opportunities
women started going to school
social work, nurses, teachers, librarians Negative Stereotypes: a woman's place was in the home, sexual harassment at work, promiscuity 1896: depicted women's developing role in society Labor Unions Technology Steam Engines factory machines borrowers--> innovators telegraph (1844): Samuel F. B. Morse Typewriter (1867) cash register (1879) calculation and adding machines (1888) Thomas Edison research & development laboratories Urbanization Technology Expands Market Expands workforce expands need for capital increases women started to gain acceptance and acknowledgment in society
population of US dramatically increase
cities became more urban and industrial
consumer economy
better transportation network
railroads consumer society Railroads nation's 1st big success
mileage quintupled from 1865 to 1900
greatest impact on economic life
national market for goods
promoted western settlement
linked country
encouraged mass production, consumption, and economic specialization
promoted growth of industry
American Railroad Association divided country into 4 time zones in 1883
Trunk line: major routes between large cities often mismanaged and outright fraud Gospel of Wealth thesis that hard work and perseverance lead to wealth and implies that poverty is a character flaw Railroad Strike of 1877 great uprising of railroad workers who became upset because of wage cuts
most violent outbreak of labor violence Pullman Strike of 1894 Pullman Palace Sleeping Car Company cut wages for its workers and charged them for housing Haymarket Bombing of 1886 labor movement in Chicago for 8 hour work days
turned violent when a bomb was thrown
7 police officers were killed
Knights of Labor union lost popularity National Labor Union (1866): first attempt to organize workers in all states
equal rights for women & blacks
monetary reform
8 hour work days

Knights of Labor (1869): second national labor union which began as a secret society
worker cooperatives to "make each man his own employer"
no more child labor
no more trusts and monopolies
membership declined rapidly after Haymarket bombing

American Federation of Labor (1866): founded to attain economic goals
higher salaries
better working conditions 3% of workers were in unions by 1900s The Great Migration movement of black families from the rural South to the urban North East and Midwest

black women had limited opportunities
lived in ghettos but more diverse than in the south
restricted job opportunities
limited income
brought important aspects into US pop culture
vaudeville Immigrants had high hopes for America
the "land of the free"
complete happiness
equality in reality
long days and low pay redefined the social divisons in society The IDEAL City Cities became the new west where dreams could come true
clean & prosperous
connected by railways and streetcars
houses near factories
industrial jobs in cities were better than farm jobs 1850- 5% lived in cities
1900- 19% lived in cities higher profit low wages poor conditions technology long work days mass-production Ellis Island Coming to America 20% of industrial workers quit, others protested or joined labor unions
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