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Student Copy of Anatomy and Physiology*

Chapter 1
by

Mike Nussbaum

on 14 September 2015

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Transcript of Student Copy of Anatomy and Physiology*

1-2
Chapter 1
Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

1-2
Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy –
Physiology –
Structure is always related to function
1-3
Levels of Organization
Atom – hydrogen atom, lithium atom
Molecule – water molecule, glucose molecule
Macromolecule – protein molecule, DNA molecule
Organelle – mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus
Cell – muscle cell, nerve cell
Tissue – loose connective tissue, muscle tissue
Organ – skin, femur
Organ System – skeletal system, digestive system
Organism - human
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Levels of Organization
1-5
Characteristics of Life
Movement – change in position; motion
Responsiveness – reaction to a change
Growth – increase in size
Respiration – obtaining oxygen; removing carbon dioxide; releasing energy from foods
Reproduction –
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Characteristics of Life
Absorption – passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids
Circulation –
Assimilation – changing of absorbed substances into different substances
Excretion – removal of wastes
Digestion – breakdown of food substances
1-7
Requirements of Organisms
Water
- most abundant substance in body
- required for metabolic processes
- required for transport
- regulates body temperature
Food
- supply energy
- supply raw materials
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Requirements of Organisms
Oxygen
- one-fifth of air
- used to release energy from nutrients
Heat
- form of energy
- partly controls rate of metabolic reactions
Pressure
- atmospheric pressure – important for breathing
- hydrostatic pressure – keeps blood flowing
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Homeostasis
Body’s maintenance of a stable internal environment
Homeostatic Mechanisms –

Receptors - provide information
Control center - tells what a particular value should be
Effectors - causes responses to change internal environment
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Negative feedback- maintains homeostatic

Positive feedback-blood clot stimulates more clotting
baby suckles stimulates more milk
Body Cavities
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Serous Membranes
Thoracic Membranes
Visceral pleura
Parietal pleura
Visceral pericardium
Parietal pericardium
Line walls of thoracic and abdominal cavities and organs
Visceral layer –
Parietal layer –
Abdominopelvic Membranes
Visceral peritoneum
Parietal peritoneum
1-13
Serous Membranes
1-14
Organ Systems
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Organ Systems
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Organ Systems
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Life-Span Changes
Aging begins right after child birth
Woman over 35 may have advanced maternal age
40-50 gray hair, wrinkles, high blood pressure
60 waning immunity makes vaccinations more important
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Anatomical Terminology
Anatomical Position –
Terms of Relative Position
Superior versus Inferior
Anterior versus Posterior
Medial versus Lateral
Ipsilateral versus Contralateral
Proximal versus Distal
Superficial versus Deep
1-18
Body Sections
Sagittal / Midsagittal or Median
Transverse / Cross
Coronal or Frontal
Oblique
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Abdominal Subdivisions
1-20
Body Regions
1-21
Clinical Application
Medical Imaging

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Noninvasive procedures
Provide images of soft internal structures
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Requires injection of dye
Produces computerized transverse, frontal, and sagittal sections of area being studied
Ultrasonography
Use of high-frequency sound waves
Relatively quick and inexpensive
Full transcript