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Group Dynamics In Sport

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shaniel makwana

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Group Dynamics In Sport

Coordination Fault/ Losses

Motivational Losses

Ringelmann Effect
As the group gets bigger the productivity decreases. This could be due to different factors. Often up to 50%. The Ringelmann effect is a phenomenon seen in groups where individual participants in the group tend to decrease effort and coordination on projects. This has important implications for the study of group dynamics, especially for activities like sports, where effort of individual group members is key to the success of the team as a whole. Social psychologists study this and other topics through observations of groups, carefully designed experiments, and retroactive evaluation of group performance. This concept is often discussed in introductory psychology classes, especially social or group psychology courses. German researcher Max Ringelmann (1861-1931) conducted an experiment where he had people alone and in groups pull on a rope. This is where in large groups the efforts of people decreased and they didn't try as hard enough as they should to make sure that can all come together and get the right result he also found that as the group efforts were declining the large group were struggling to keep the coordination of the whole team on the same wavelength. This is very important to make sure that everyone in the Team works together and then you can also make sure that no team members hide away and then they take some credit if they win but they did not play their performance. Some of the causes that lead onto the Ringelmann effect would be

- Individual working on his own e.g. his performance to high for the rest of the team or not good enough for the rest of the team
- Individual belief that their personal effort will have a little effect on the outcome of the game
- Individual assumption that the personal lack of effort will be unnoticed in a big group
- Individual belief that personal lack of effort will be compensated for the effort that is made by the other members of the team.

This is the theory of looking out how big the team is and also how much contribution that each person contributes to the team. This is very important to make sure that everyone in the team contributing their fair share and making sure that you can also power to the goal which in any sport is to win.

This graph was a experiment that was conducted of a tug of war team and they all had their efforts recorded and they then they had thier actual efforts were recorded. This was very surprising. the only workers that were giving their expected effort were the first 2 workers. All the other workers were not working as hard as they could at all could. These other workers were "hiding" behind the others as this is a big team.
Analysis of all the sections
All of these sections are very important in team sports and they all put forward a very good case in why they are involved. Social Loafing is very important as it relates to performers behavior in the team in a certain sport and this also thought caused by motivation loss and faults as several members are trying to achieve the same goal which is to win. They are performing the same tasks and also social loafing can have disastrous consequences to sporting outcomes. I think that when you are in a team you need to all work together to achieve the same goal which is to ultimately win the game and make sure that you work as a unit. I think that Social loafing is a very strong aspect as in any team game this can occur from my analysis that I have conducted on these 4 key areas the main point is Social Loafing. This is very important to make sure that when you are playing in a Team you consider this main factor. This is very effective as when you are playing in a team you need to make sure that you bond with that team and also make sure that you involve yourself with the training sessions and also the practice games to build chemistry between your teammates. This happens in all sports from Football to Cricket this is very common and I have seen this in cricket games e.g. Ashes 2013. The England team didn't have a chance beating Australia as they could play together to achieve any wins and this was because they had motivation loss. This is a big factor as Motivation loss is a very big factor as many different teams suffer from this at the start of their season, during and also the end. This is very important to make sure that when the motivation is low the manager and captain pick the whole team up and make sure that they are motivated to make sure that pull through the match to win. An example of this would be Manchester United as they send some of their players out to hot weather countries to train and also build more team performance. This is very to get the whole team motivated and make sure that you can also see how the players will also bond together and also this will then help better performance. This is what teams like Manchester United who have sent 5 of their to Qatar for hot weather training and also to get to know the new teammate who is Juan Mata. He will need to work together with Robin Van Persie and Wayne Rooney to make sure that they can score goals and win matches and this can make or break a team and this then will lose everything that they worked on in the training.
This is a very important factor to make sure that when you are playing you need to reduce the effects of Ringelmann and also make sure that you do not endure a motivational loss and also keep Social Loafing on a minimum and make sure that everyone in the team puts 100% work rate into this. An example of this could be the 2008 Olympics in Badminton. The doubles teams were both making fouls as they did not want to go into the final to play the best team. This was very bad and also not the right attitude towards the game and as a result of this both teams did then get disqualified. This is an example of when things go badly and the team loses its motivation and also wont fight to become the best and make sure that they can also you can have the right attitude to make sure that you can win the game and also the tournament.
I can also see that the best method to beat the social loafing and all extras that come with this would be team bonding sessions as this have proven to build confidence and also make sure that the players and teammates get to know each other to make sure that they can work together. This is very important to make sure that when you are taking on a very big team you need to make sure that they work together and try and get the best for there team to make sure that they all bond
Analysis Continued
Group Dynamics In Sport
By Shaniel Makwana


Social Loafing
We are going to be looking at how Group Dynamics Effects a Team in different sports, we will be looking at these 4 key points

Social Loafing
Motivational Losses
Coordination Faults and Losses
Ringlemann Effect

Social loafing when there are individuals putting in less than 100% effort in a group based activity or sport, this is based on motivation. This describes the tendency towards the others to put in less effort because they are in groups. All the members of the group are pooling their their efforts to achieve the common goal and each member of the group will contribute less as there will be many different members of the group and will be easier to hide away. In Sports you would make sure that work as Team to make sure that you can all contribute the same and also make sure you achieve the goal that you set out. E.g. Football you would need to work as a team and make sure that you can also all play together and all on the same wavelength this would be very important if you are in a match that you want to win. To succeed in the task everyone would have to put in the combined efforts and if everyone does their job well then this will increase the chances of the team winning. Everyone has their own unique role and they have to be recognized and appreciated. If everyone plays up to their own standard and this may be lower than others then they won’t be working together as a unit, and then they will not win the match. When you are working together as a unit you will see the improvements as your attitude is will them improve and this will then boost the whole moral and confidence of the team. There are many ways that you can cure Social Loafing and that are very effective to make sure that everyone can put in the same amount of effort and make sure that you achieve the same goal. Some ways that you can tackle social loafing is with more motivation and this is very important to make sure that that you motivate your teammates and this could be with tangible rewards e,g, money. This could be saying that think how much money we will get after this and motivating your teammates. A sporting example of this would be Manchester United. They have very bad group dynamics and they have experienced Social Loafing with there top player not performing well in any competitions. This theory that Ringlemann created shows that a 2 man team is much more effective that a 11 man team. This is true because in a 2 man team there is no where to hide and you are in the pressure zone. A example of this would be the Davis Cup. Your in a 2 man team and there is no where to hide in this group however in a 11 man team a player could hide and not put any effort in at all and then still get the same amount of money as the other players

Motivation is the fundamental of all athletic efforts and their achievements. If there is no desire to do better in your sport then you will not be able progress further and also succeed in this sport. To become the best athlete you need to be motivated to make sure that you can go out and fight to become the very best and maximize yourself to make sure that you become the very best. You will also need to achieve your goal and work your very hardest to get this and progress through the stages. Motivation in sports is very important as you need to face the fatigue and the pain to do other things. This will also effect your impact on different things like : sleep, diet, school work and relationships. Motivation is very important as this is the only contributor to your performance that you have control over . Motivation in sports is a crucial as if you don't have this then you wont be able to succeed at the highest level and this will then not be good. The grind is where the athletes will work in training and they will also be able to see the improvements when this gets tiring and painful. This is what separates the successful athletes from the other athletes as many of these other athletes reach this point and then they give up as its to much and to hard for them to take. There are many signs that motivation has come to a stop in an athletes :

- Lack of Desire to practice as much as you should
- Less than 100% effort given in training
- Skipping training or making them shorter

These are 3 key signs that you will be seeing to make sure that when you as an athlete is going to be training that you don't lose your motivation. A sporting example of this would be if you are playing golf and then you miss a shot and then you motivation to come above this and come back to your optimum performance. A example would be Rory Mcilroy in the Golf Open champion ships. He started off very well but then is motivation dropped as he thought he was going to win so he did not want to try anymore. He came off the optimum level very sharply and he could not get a shot in this is where his motivation was lost. This is common as many athletes get over confidence and they will then knocked off and then they lose this. This is very important factor in any sport that you play as you need to make sure that you have a good balance of everything and make sure that you perform to the highest level and also make sure that you can achieve the highest result possible as this is very important in sport as you need to make sure that if you want to improve you use your own motivation and this will the help you when you are finding it hard e.g. on training sessions and you would need to make sure that you can reach your goal. The coach also plays a very big part to make sure that the athlete will make their goals and also get to compete at the highest level e.g. Olympics.
Coordination faults come with Social Loafing and any breakdown within the team results in a coordination loss. This occurs as the team cannot be sustained for the whole duration of the match. This mainly happens in football matches e.g. Lee Bowyer Kieron Dyer fight on the pitch. This was because they had a disagreement on the pitch and then they took this our with a fight on pitch. They were on the same team (Newcastle F.C) and they just started to fight. This was unacceptable behavior and as we can see from the video they both got sent for this and result Newcastle down to 9 men and they were already 0-3 down to Aston Villa. This is a example of Coordination loss and then they had broken down and then started to take the blame out on each other as they were losing 0-3 so there is some major defensive mistakes. This is very important to get the best out of the whole team and make sure that you all work together and make sure that you get the best possible result. When you are playing in a Team you need to make sure that everyone works together to get the job done and also make sure that achieve the best result. Another example would be that if a team are pulling on a rope at different times they will not capitalize on the full potential of the team. The whole team will be losing out on this as if they put all their effort in to pull the rope at once then they will be able to beat the other team.
Thank you for your time
I think that the least factor of these 4 is the co-ordination loss and faults as this can be easily prevented. The team should make sure that they all work together and get the job completed to win the match as this is what every team whats to have, which is success. A team coach can send the players away for hot weather training to bond better and make sure that they can work together and also play together. An example of this would be any Premier League football team right now as they have had break from the premier league and they have also been out of the FA cup so some of their players have been taken to places like Dubai and Qatar for hot weather training. This will help the players bond and also make sure that they are on the same wavelength. This is way that you can reduce the problem of Co-ordination loss and faults in the team. As we saw earlier with Newcastle the player had a fight on the pitch as they were both blaming each others form as to why they went 3-0 in the first half. This is because of co-ordinations loss's and faults but this is something that can be easily avoided in the game. The coach should deal with something like this at half time or after the match as to why they started to fight.
Overall I think that this method is easy to avoid as many different players have disagreements on the off the pitch in any sports because sometimes their ego gets the better of them. and they think that they are bigger and better than everyone on the pitch. This is when the player get to much money and they also get over confident.
Team - This is group of players forming one side in a competitive game or sport.
Group - A number of people who are classed, gathered together.
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