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Copy of Copy of Excretory System

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Excretory System

The Basics
Malphigian tubules
Kidney (contd.)

One-celled organisms
and
simple animals
, like the sponge, are in constant contact with their surroundings.

They
don't
have excretory organs. As we'll learn later they absorb oxygen through
diffusion
and allow carbon dioxide and other wastes to diffuse out pores.
Earthworms exhibit the next step of the system with structures called
nephridia
. These are also coiled tubules which function as organs of the excretory system. Like flame cells, they have
cilia
and connect to a
sac
(
a primitive bladder
). Cells in the nephridia absorb necessary materials from passing fluid in nearby capillaries while the rest is funneled to the primitive bladder. The waste is excreted from pores on the skin.
Insects like the grasshopper show the next step in the excretory system's evolution,
Malphigian tubules
. As mentioned later the tubules are open at one end and fluids pass through the tubule to the alimentary canal. While it travels cells in the tubules will also take up certain amounts of water, salt, and nutrients to sustain the grasshopper's body. The tubules are worked to the intestinal tract where they are removed from the body.
Kidneys
are displayed in higher vertebrates like the fish, snake, and pig (which are very similar to humans'). Kidneys
evolved from nephridia
. They have a number of structures:
Nephrons
Bowman's capsule
Malphigian corpuscle
Segmented Channels
Kidneys are connected to the bladder by tubes called ureters.
Impact of Human Activities
Major Organs
Major Organ: Gills
Major Organ: Urinary Bladder
Vary in biomes
From
temperate grasslands
to
deserts
Anywhere where they can find any available source of vegetation
Humans have had a
mixed
impact on populations:
We have used pesticides to kill off grasshoppers.

But because of the abundance of our food, we have drastically increased their population by providing them an easy food source.
Excrete Ammonia, Salt, and Carbon Dioxide
Stores nitrogenous wastes until it's excreted
Perch
Malpighian Tubules Structure

Grasshopper
Organ System Impact on Lifestyle
Major Symptoms
in Men
Major Symptoms
in Women
Causes
Treatments
• Abdominal pain
• Burning pain while urinating
• Fever and chills
• Frequent/urgent urination
• Pelvic pain
• Vaginal discharge
Health care provider may prescribe antibodies (gets rid of bacteria causing disease)
• Famvir
• Adoxa
• Tindamax
• Zmax
What do snakes
eat
?
Snakes are carnivorous, preying on organisms like eggs, snails, slugs, mice, lizards, frogs, birds, fish, and other snakes

How does this relate to their "
role
?"
They play a major role in their biome as they act as a sort of "pest control" by preying on rats and rodents. In this way, snakes also contribute to the success of crops and other produce since snakes keep invades from spoiling crop supplies and humans can abstain from using harmful pesticides on crops to keep pests away.

Snakes are also
ectothermic
.
Ecological Niche: Cont'd

The Snake

Systems Affected
About the Stephanurus
Effects of the Parasite
The Progression of the S. dentatus
Symptoms
Treatments
What
systems
are affected by this parasite?
Excretory
(the walls of the ureter and peri-renal fat)
Digestive
(liver)
Circulatory
(as a means of transport)
Respiratory
What are
facts
about the Stephanurus dentatus?
It is a type of worm belonging to the
nematodes
. It is roughly 2-5 cm in length and appear with a white and black mottled or brown appearance . Though the Stephanurus has a nervous system and a mouth and anus it lacks both a circulatory system and excretory organs.

The ova of the Stephanurus has thin walls.

Common to areas of warm temperatures, esp. tropics (like South and Central America)
What physical
symptoms
do pigs exhibit?
slow growth
paralysis
uncoordinated/involuntary movements
death
What
treatments
exist?
There are a few means of
prevention
; young pigs may be allowed to produce only one litter to prevent them from passing S. dentatus through their urine. Pens must also be kept clean and dry.

A number of
anthelmintics
/
medicines
also exist, some being Doramectin, Fenbendazole, Ivermectin, and Levamisole.
by Shyamsunder, Radha, Nitin, Danielle, and Rankita

The Excretory System
Biomes
Ecological Niche
Human Activity
Sponge Excretory System
Important Organs/Tissues
Lifestyle
Sponges
What
biome(s)
would you expect to find this animal?
Sponges are mainly found in the ocean, generally in the
intertidal zone
, also called the littoral zone, is the region where land and water meet.
Sponges
feed by filtering
tiny diatoms, bacteria, protozoans and other microscopically small organisms out of the water column. Studies have demonstrated that many sponges can easily filter 50 to 100 gallons of sea water in a single day.

How does the sponge
function
in their ecosystem?
Sponges have vital functions in reef ecosystems, by filtering the water, sponges add to water clarity, especially in areas where sponges are prolific. Sponges feed by creating a current of water that flows through a series of tiny pores and canals. The current is generated by the seemingly frantic and ever-constant beating of numerous small, hairlike flagella that line the walls of the pores and canals.
How does the
structure of the system
affect the lifestyle?
The sponge is well adapted to most regions, as their pores allow them to filter water and expel wastes. the sponge has a cavity, with a hole at the top, while the base is grounded. The water flows in and out from this hole, bringing food in and flushing out waste. Sponges can control the water flow and are able to survive despite their simplicity.
Human Activity
Adaptations
What affect do humans have on pigs?
Pigs have been raised and farmed for consumption (negative).
the kidney has been adapted by vertebrates for the various environments in which they live. Generally, nephron structure and function varies to better provide required osmoregulatory functions in vertebrate habitats.
Biomes
The Pig
What do pig's
prey on
?
Pigs are omnivores. They typically eat
leaves, grasses, roots, fruits, and flowers
. In captivity (farms) they eat corn and soybean meal.
What
preys on
pigs?
Wolves may prey on wild pigs but the main predator of pigs are
humans
.
What is the pig's
role
?
The pig's role in it's niche is that it fertilizes the soil around them with their droppings or poop.
The Evolution of the Mammalian Kidney
Protonephridia
(Platyhelminthes)
Metanephridia
(Annelids)
Nephrons
(Fish)
Cortical Nephrons
(Reptiles)
Juxtamedullary Nephrons
(Mammals)
Introduction and Overview of the Evolution
Ecological Niche
Grasshoppers will eat most
plants
(wild or cultivated) including alfalfa hay and grass.

The grass that they consume is passed as droppings which contribute to
nutrient turnover
by returning as a fertilizer for plants.

Grasshoppers are
preyed upon
by birds, lizards, spiders, mantidae, and rodents.

When traveling in swarms, they often destroy crops, making them a big hazard for humans.

A common predator of the grasshopper while it travels in swarms is the locust.

What are the snakes
predators
?
Snakes are also preyed upon by eagles, mongoose, and weasels

What
biome(s)
do they inhabit?
Snakes live in grasslands, rainforest, chaparral, temperate deciduous forests, swamps, and other wetlands.

How do
humans
affect the snake?
Snakes are prone to poaching for their skins. Deforestation and dumping decrease the amount of living space for snakes. Snakes are also kept as pets. Aside from preservation efforts, human activities are generally negative for snakes.
The main organ of excretion are the
Malphigian tubules
:

Open-circulatory system of grasshoppers & other insects
Located at the junction of the midgut and hindgut
Perch
eat
small crustaceans, waterfleas, small fish, and crayfish

Perch
are eaten
by other fish (gulls, kingfishers), eagles, and anglers

The
role
of the Perch:
To maintain the population of the food that they eat
To provide food for the population of predators that eat them
Ecological Niche
Biomes
Live in a wide range of habitats, but mainly freshwater habitats
Need to have easy access to food no matter where they are
Biomes mainly include: lakes, streams, rivers
Human Impact
Snake Anatomical Structure: The Water Snake
Structure of Organs in Snakes
What
tissues
make up the excretory system?
The kidneys are composed of simple cuboidal epithelial tissue. These tissue types are structured to withstand trauma and specialized for diffusion and absorption, patterned with villi and cilia.

Introduction?
Snakes have two elongated kidneys and a pair of ureters. The right kidney is closer to the snake's head. The liver is also involved in this system. It is the largest internal organ and processes ammonia. Though the main site of waste processing is in the kidney, the colon also plays a significant role.
Biomes
Major Organ: Kidney
Removes/Filters nitrogenous wastes from the blood
Mostly involved in regulating water levels
Tissue: Hematopoietic and Lymphoid
Produce red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells
Pictured above: cuboidal epithelial tissue
The Snake Excretory System
What is the
structure of the kidney
?
Like mammals, the snake has glomeruli in the kidneys; however, there are fewer of these structures in snakes than mammals. The kidney is also composed of nephrons.

It's glomeruli* are very small and can filter less water from the snake's blood as a result (snakes need little water to secrete uric acid). Unlike higher mammals, like the pig, the snake can't produce concentrated urine as waste as it would waste too much water.
*a network of capillaries that recieve blood from the body to be filtered in the succeeding tubule

Excretory System Diseases
The Snake Excretory System (cont.)
Instead, these waste solutions are worked to the colon* which works to reabsorb excess water. This allows the snake to secrete uric acid along with their feces. The waste is not stored, as snake's do not have bladders, so it flows straight to the cloaca.
*large intestine
What is the
significance
?
By giving off wastes as uric acid, the snake can conserve lot of water; however, this is costly, as it takes a larger amount of energy to produce than urea.
Ecological Niche
Anatomy of a
Perch
kidney and ureter
(see previous discussion for kidney structure)
colon
(made up of epithelial tissue; folded structure with no villi and fewer microvilli; responsible for water absorption)
Snake Lifestyle
How is the
snake's lifestyle
affected by this organ system?
The snake gets water from the animals it consumes, the amount of water in the body being partly controlled by the excretion of uric acid.
cloaca
(not pictured; a chamber and outlet containing a middle portion known as the urodeum which receives excretory wastes)
Snake Dissection Contd.
Pig Parasites: Stephanurus dentatus
May enter pigs through a pig's ingestion of earthworms (which are used as a mechanical vectors) or penetrating the skin

Through the skin: The worm travels to the lungs to reach the trachea and then the pharynx

Once ingested: The Steph. will migrate to the intestines via blood and then to the liver until they reach the end site: the ureters or peri-renal fat
What happens to the pigs as a result?
Traveling S. dentatus larvae can cause great damage.

The
veins
: Prone to phlebitis (severe inflammation)

The
liver
: Interstitial hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) and fibrosis

General
: multiple lesions and abscesses
Bibliography
"Tissues of the Large Intestine." Tissues of the Large Intestine. Rutgers, n.d. Web. 15 June 2014.

Berman, William. How to Dissect: Exploring with Probe and Scalpel. New York: Arco Pub., 1978. Print.

Mattison, Chris. Snake. New York: DK Pub., 1999. Print.

Davidson, Michael W. "Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics & You - Olympus MIC-D: Darkfield Gallery - Grasshopper Malpighian Tubules."- Grasshopper Malpighian Tubules. Flordia State University, July-Aug. 2003. Web. 15 June 2014.

Fish Anatomy. N.p., n.d. Web.

"Anatomy." Anatomy. N.p., n.d. Web.


Have
human activities
affected sponges positively?
Humans have had a negative effect on sponges. Man-made pollutants that reach the ocean include, chemical fertilizers, detergents, oil, sewage, and plastics.Many of these pollutants collect at the ocean's depths.

In large bodies of water, sound waves can carry undiminished for miles. The increased presence of loud or persistent sounds from ships, sonar devices, and oil rigs can disrupt the communication and reproduction patterns of this organism.
Are there any i
mportant organs
in the sponge?
Major Organ: Liver
Secretes enzymes to break down what the perch eats
Stores food and produces regulatory chemicals necessary for metabolic activities
Disease: Urethritis
Infection and inflammation of the lining of the urethra
Urethra: The tube that carries urine from the bladder so it can be expelled from the body
The infection may affect the bladder, prostate, and reproductive organs
Midgut
• Blood in urine/semen
• Burning pain while peeing
• Fever
• Discharge from penis
Hindgut
• Pain w/ intercourse/ejaculation
• Frequent/urgent urination
• Itching, tenderness, swelling in penis or groin area
What is the
structure
of the tubes?

Appear as
long, thread-like tubules
that flex through the hemolymph
Closed off at one end and open at the other where they are
connected to the alimentary canal
Contain
actin
* for support
Also have
microvilli
to propel substances along tubules


• Bacteria & other organisms entering the urethra
• Usually bacteria that is spread from the anus
• For woman, bruising during sexual intercourse
• For men, infection reaching the urethra from the prostate gland/ through the penis opening
• Bacterial infection after taking antibiotics
• Reiter syndrome (reactive arthritis)
• STD's
*a globular protein
Malphigian Tubules Function
How do the tubules
function
?
Take up uric acid in the hemocoel* made by insect's tissues and causes it to precipitate in the lumen
As it extends into the fluid as threads it is exposed to much of the hemolyph and can absorb wastes more effectively
Humans have been over-fishing perches, killing them off rapidly
The oil/pollution in the water are causing the marine life to slowly die
*the primary body cavity of most invertebrates, containing circulatory fluid.
By ridding itself of extra water (not needed to excrete uric acid) the grasshopper can fly and jump more easily.

In its eggs, the uric acid is a harmless waste which can be stored away until the young grasshopper is hatched without upsetting growth or development.
How the structure relates to the function
Thanks For Watching
Ecological Niche
Where
can pigs be found?
Temperate grasslands
Important Organs
What are some important excretory
organs
?
Kidneys
: two bean-shaped organs present on either side of the spine. The kidneys are covered by the peritoneal membrane and are thus located retroperitoneal. The kidneys excrete harmful substances from the blood and form urine.

Liver
: large brown lobed structure located at the anterior end of the abdominal cavity. It metabolizes many drugs (including alcohol) and makes a substance similar to detergent for fat digestion called bile.

Gall bladder:
small sac-like structure located underneath the right part of the liver. It collects bile, which is sent to the initial portion of the small intestine (duodenum) via the cystic and common bile ducts.

Important Organs (contd.)
Umbilical arteries
: in addition to the umbilical vein that connected the umbilical cord to the liver there are two arterial vessels that connect to the lower part of the abdominal cavity. These vessels carry blood to the placenta where it picks up nutrients and oxygen.

Pancreas
: Bumpy yellowish-brown gland located along bottom of the stomach and extending to the duodenum. It looks like “creamed corn”. The pancreas makes digestive enzymes, which are carried by the pancreatic duct to the duodenum. The pancreas also makes the hormone insulin, which promotes sugar uptake from blood.

Urinary bladder
: a large flattened sac that lies between the two umbilical arteries. It stores the urine.
Dissections
Structure and Lifestyle
Introduction
The excretory system is responsible for removing waste products from metabolic processes in an organism. In doing this, an organism can complete a vital life process: maintaining
homeostasis
.

As we learn more about the excretory system we will track the appearance of
specialized cells, tissues, and
eventually
organs
which aid in the process of removing nitrogen-derived wastes.

We will also see how different wastes affect water retention in organisms.
Specialized Cells
Flatworms exhibit the next step in the excretory system's evolution. While they do utilize
diffusion
as a means to excrete wastes they also have
specialized flame cells
which have
cilia
to push wastes into excretory canals. These canals are connected to a series of tubules that leave the body through pores.
Nephridia
Malphigian tubules
Kidneys
Like it's predecessors, the kidney also utilizes
diffusion
. Fluids containing wastes are filtered through the capillaries into the kidney through the Bowman's capsule which encloses the
glomerulus
. Through a series of long tubules, called
nephrons
, and different osmotic pressure within the kidneys cortex and medulla.
Water and vitamins
are alternately removed from the filtrate that travels through nephrons.
The exoskeleton of the sponge is the most important organ of the sponge. The sponge's exoskeleton consists of a wide variety of cells which work together to help the sponge survive.
*What's different about the kidneys of fish, snakes, and pigs?

Fish kidneys are typically longer and thinner than most vertebrates and also share a role typically attributed to the kidneys with gills.

Reptile kidneys are not segmental.




Kidneys (contd. II)
Important Organs/Tissues
Sponges are made up of a variety of cells. For the purposes of the excretory system the two most important are:

Collar cells
: which line the interior of sponges and have flagella which pump water (and oxygen and nutrients) through the sponge and remove wastes, like carbon dioxide
Porocytes
: which make up the sponge's pores
where
wastes may leave.


It's important to understand that a big leap in the excretory system's evolution is attributed to the move to land. Readily soluble materials in aquatic organisms can be opened to the exterior for easy osmosis, like urea. However, new solutes like uric acid and urine are synthesized by land animal systems to account for changes in water availability. We'll see these as we continue.
kidneys
gallbladder
Because pigs have a highly complex excretory system similar to that of humans they can more efficiently take in food and get rid of unescessary waste
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