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THEO 403 (Su '16) T17-18 - Buddhism

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by

Hartmut Scherer

on 27 July 2016

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Transcript of THEO 403 (Su '16) T17-18 - Buddhism

Suffering
-
Christ overcame suffering by solving the
problem of sin, the real source of suffering
Arhats
obtain liberation
(Nirvana) by realizing the
nature of emptiness
Buddhism
Origin:
- Gautama Buddha, ~600 B.C.
Essential beliefs and practices:
- The Tripitaka, "Three Baskets"
Major contemporary divisions:
Scriptures:
- Theravada (also known as
Hinayana)
Introduction
Summary
Gautama's Life
Diversity in Paths to Nirvana
- Salvation consists of
- the “Four Passing Sights” (legend)
What do we know about the founder of Buddhism?
The pursuit of spiritual enlightenment
- lived as a hermit for six years
Title adopted from David S. Noss, A History of the World's Religions (Prentice Hall, 2003), VI.
1
Major Religions in Asia
Gautama's Teaching
Buddhist Practices
Theravada Buddhism
Bridges
for Evangelizing

Buddhism in Bhutan
a) deliverance from the
cycle of reincarnations
b) entering the state of
Nirvana
- Lotus Sutra
- numerous other sutras
- Mahayana, a collection
of many adaptive schools
- Gautama's father was forewarned about his son
(houseless monk or emperor)
- based on the life and teaching of its founder
prince Siddharta Gautama
Buddhism is
Foundation of Buddhism
The essence of Buddhism
Buddhism teaches that . . .
- a person can liberate the self from the suffering
implied in living in this world
Buddhism - a response to Hinduism
The monk Gautama denied . . .
that ritual observances based upon the
Vedas
can save
- Buddha is
not crucial
to the essence of Buddhism
- a person can reach their own Buddha status by a
process of mental and moral purification
that only the
Brahmin priesthood
has the rights of showing the way to salvation
- father protected son from all sorrows of life
- tried philosophic meditation and bodily asceticism
- under a fig tree: either die of starvation or find
enlightenment
- attained enlightenment -> one merits the title Buddha
What did Gautama discover under the fig tree?
- discovered the
middle way
as the secret of
enlightenment
- life is illusion and detracts from nothingness
(
sunyata
, void)
- human beings are non-self, anatman
- The goal: the
realization of one’s self-extinctedness
The “four noble truths”
- to live is to suffer
The eightfold path
- right belief
- suffering is caused by desire
(tanha)
- one can eliminate suffering by eliminating desire
- desire is eliminated by means of the noble
eightfold path
- right aspiration
- right speech
- right conduct
- right means of livelihood
- right effort
- right mindfulness
- right concentration
(-> Arhat / saint)
Karma
Hinduism
- good and bad karma
Buddhism
- next life is affected
by one's action
-
good karma
improves
next life
- have
no karma
at
all and withdraw
from all action
Spread of Buddhism
- Gautama’s followers formed an
order of monks, the
sangha
Five Essential rules
- wearing of the yellow robe
- adoption of the shaven head
- carrying of the begging bowl
- habit of daily meditation
- initiate’s
confession
http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/books/applications/imaps/maps/g6_u7/index.html
“I take refuge in the Buddha,
I take refuge in the Dharma,
I take refuge in the Sangha.”
the
caste system
for his followers
Historic Background
1) Refrain from destroying life
(the principle of ahimsa)
10 Principles for Bikhus
- Tripitaka ("three baskets"), the early teachings of
Buddha (~200 B.C.)
- Buddhism split ~200 B.C.
- Theravada Buddhism, a group of stricter discipline
- remained relatively true to the teachings of Gautama
- only monks (
bikhus
) can attain Nirvana
2) Do not take what is not given
3) Abstain from unchastity
4) Do not lie or deceive
5) Abstain from intoxicants
6) Eat moderately and not after noon
10 Principles for Bikhus (cont.)
7) Do not look on at dancing, singing, or
dramatic spectacles
8) Do not affect the use of garlands, scents,
ointments, or ornaments
9) Do not use high or broad beds
10) Do not accept gold or silver
realized his self-extinctedness
Bikhus, Arhats, and Buddhas
Arhat garden
Bikhu
Arhat
Buddha = Arhat ?
Buddhas
obtain Nirvana by complete

realization of all truths
The role of lay people
- lead a good life in order to store up sufficient
merit for a better incarnation
Obligations for lay people:
- keep the first 5 principles
- support the bikhus with food, clothing, etc.
- maintain the temples
The golden age of enlightenment
- Buddha is no longer alone (1 of 25)
- another Buddha is in the making (a “Bodhisattva”)
Bodhisattva (Maitreya)
- refrains from entering Nirvana in
order to lead others to liberation
- with Maitreya the golden age
of enlightenment will begin
Maitreya project Heart Shrine
Historic Background
- Mahayana, “the big raft” accommodated large
numbers of people
- Around 200 B.C. Buddhism began to offer new ways
to attain salvation without becoming a monk
4 Essential Features
1) the teaching of sunyata changed from void
into compassion
2) number of divine beings increased
- Manushi Buddhas
- Dhyani Buddhas
- Bodhisattvas
4 Essential Features (cont.)
3) Lotus Sutra and other scriptures
4) development of many schools
Scroll Tray with Two Scrolls from a set of the Lotus Sutra
"
Canon by selection
" (Corduan)
Each group develops or selects its favorite scriptures
Mahayana Schools
Focus on areas of personal need
Buddha's Birthday - Locus Lantern Festival
What all Buddhists have in common
- fundamental negative attitude toward life
- Buddha provides a solution to
the frustrations of life
Meaningful Self
-
Future Hope
-
He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things [suffering] has passed away." (Rev. 21:4, NIV)
Focus on areas of personal need (cont.)
Moral Law
-
Merit
-
Desire
-
(Adopted an article about Buddhism from Daniel R. Heimbach at http://www.4truth.net/fourtruthpbworld.aspx?pageid=8589952141)
Holidays and Festivals
- Buddhist new year is in April (rejoice and rededicate)
- Buddha's birthday
- on the day of death, angered souls of the ancestors
are appeased with food offerings
- some Buddhists may be vegetarian
- veneration of ancestors
each person is made in God's image
eternal good life in a "new heaven
and new earth" -> Rev. 21:4
a personal God governs the universe
Jesus Christ offers His unlimited merit as a free gift to anyone who will become his disciple
we reject evil desires and cultivate good desires according to the standard of Christ
"We fix our eyes not on what is seen [suffering], but on what is unseen [eternal life free of suffering]. For what is seen [suffering] is temporary, but what is unseen [future good life with Christ] is eternal" (2 Cor. 4:18, NIV)
Sources and Image Credit
Full transcript