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Krashen's Hypothesis Presentation
Transcript of Krashen's Hypothesis Presentation
3. Natural Order Hypotheis
4. Comprehensible Input Hypothesis
Explanation of the
5. Affective Filter Hypothesis
Stephen Krashen’s hypotheses
The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis
The Monitor hypothesis
The Natural Order hypothesis
The Input Hypothesis
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
1. The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis
Explanation of the hypothesis
Acquisition: subconscious acceptance of
Learning: conscious acceptance
grammar or form
Application for Teaching
use natural communication in the class
How are acquisition & learning used?
Acquisition system initiates an utterance.
Learning system monitors the utterance.
Monitor over-used can sometimes act as barrier.
Application for Teaching
Balance accuracy and fluency
“Affective Filter performs like a ‘screen’.
It blocks the comprehensive input in "learning" to reach the acquisition part of the brain.
It is influenced by emotional variables that can
When the filter is high, it
blocks the view (acquisition).
When the filter is low, (due
to a relaxed environment), the
view is cleared.
The filter is comprised of such factors as:
Application for Teaching:
-Cultivate learners' interest and use it to motivate
-Increase learning confidence &
decrease language anxiety
The natural order hypothesis is developed from the Order of Acquisition - the idea that children learning their first language acquire grammatical structures in a pre-determined, 'natural' order, and that some are acquired earlier than others.
This idea has been extended to account for second language acquisition in Krashen's theory of language acquisition (but it's less consistent in SLA)
According to the natural order hypothesis, learners acquire the grammatical morpheme -ing before the morpheme third person -s.
EFL learners generally acquire the grammatical structure of yes-no questions before the grammatical structure of wh- questions.
Why it is important to know this theory?
According to Krashen, learners acquire the grammatical features of a language in a predictable order.
(other researchers: "fairly predictable order")
Attempts to get the learners to produce structures before they are ready to do so may fail. (wasting time in the classroom, and giving learners anxiety)
Average Order of Acquisition of Grammatical Morphemes for ESL learners
(Children and Adults appear to be the same)
ING (progressive - sitting, playing)
COPULA (to be)
IRREGULAR PAST (went, bought)
AUXILIARY (progressive "He
ARTICLE (a, the)
REGULAR PAST (played, studied)
3rd person SINGULAR (-s)
The Applications of Natural Order Theory
This natural order of acquisition occurs independently of deliberate teaching and therefore teachers cannot change the order of a grammatical teaching sequence.
Language should be taught in order from easy to more difficult concepts by using scaffolding and guided speech.
Kranshen’s Input Hypothesis makes the following claims:
[Learners progress along the natural order by understanding input that contains structures a little bit beyond their current level of competence.]
How does a learner acquire a second language?
This hypothesis suggests that language acquisition occurs when learners receive messages that they can understand
This concept is also known as “comprehensible input”.
However, Krashen also suggests that this comprehensible input should be one step beyond the learner’s current language ability, represented as i + 1.
It is applied only to language acquisition and not to language learning.
It posits the process that allows second language learners to move through the predictable sequence of the acquisition of grammatical structures predicted by the natural order hypothesis.
The application of Input Theory
This input theory suggests that learners will succeed most effectively when teachers pay special attention to:
Improvements of the teaching materials
Comprehensibility of the teaching materials
Significance of the teaching materials
Arrangement of the teaching materials
Continuity of the teaching materials