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Psyc Intro

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Ben Mahoney

on 20 March 2012

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Transcript of Psyc Intro

Psychology's History
William Wunt
1832-1920
Considered the founder of EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
Introduced mathematics into the field
Established the first university laboratory
Studies the 'atoms' of the mind
Early focus on 'normal adult behavior'
STUCTURALISM was developed
Based on INTROSPECTION
Introspection requires exploring ones own expereince - thoughts and feelings - and documenting them
Human Behavior
1856-1939
Founded the concept of the
SUBCONSCIOUS
Developed PSYCHOANALYSIS
Interpreted dreams
Believed in unconscious mental processes
Driven by aggression and sexual desire
Focused on therapy for mental illnesses
Frued developed the id, ego and super ego
ID: Deepest sub conscious motivation, pleasure seeking pain avoiding
EGO: Seeks to please the id in realistic ways. It tries to balance desire and reality
SUPER EGO: Seeks social perfection. It feels guilt for bad desires
Engineered BEHAVIORALISM
Dismissed mental processes.
Greatly influenced by Pavlov
Premiere theory from 1920-60
The stimulus/response of Psychology
John B. Watson
Behavioral science tries to predict human behavior in certain circumstances
The aim is to predict and controll behavior
No introspection needed
1904-1990
Considered a radical behaviorist
Focused on Environmental determinants of behavior
Introduced the Concept of OPERANT CONDITIONING:
Reinforcemnet
Punishment
Extinction
Noam Chomsky
1928-
Helped establish modern COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Thought processes that systematically link
Focus on language and communication
Helped form modern theories on linguistics
Famous for Universal Grammar Theory
Universal Grammar:
Believe that all languages share the same grammar rules
Describes language acquisition for all languages
Sets out language rules: if 'x' is true, then 'y' occurs.
B.F. Skinner
Cognitive Psychology
Replaced behaviorism as the leading theory around 1960
Focuses on how people learn, store, retrieve and then use information
What is Psychology
Simund Freud
Psychology is the study of human behavior and the human mind
Mind means:
Thoughts
Feelings
Brain sensations
Other brain ativities
Psychology is interdisciplinary:
Behavioral Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Evolutionary psychology
Social Psychology
Cultural Psychology
Psychology is broad:
Biological references
Neurological references
Communicative references
Observational references
Introspective References
Goals of Psychology
Describe:
To understand how we think feel and gernarlly operate
Under what circumstances do certain thigs occur
Who, what, when where how?
To characterize these actions
Explain:
To be able to give reason for an occurance
To go beyond the gathered data to expalin actions
Be able to answer the question: Why does this happen?
Predict:
Be able to look carefully at a certain situations
Observe the influences and causes.
Finally calculate when it is likelyt to happen again
Control:
To observe or create variables that control situations
To observe when to employ these measures
To know how to employ these measures
Know when to withdraw a method
Improve:
To try to use the knowledge to the benefit of others
First, do no harm
Then, do your best
A quote from
Abraham Maslow...
“"If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail."
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/martin_seligman_on_the_state_of_psychology.html
http://www.authentichappiness.org
Sign up and Take the Survey of Character Strength
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Behavioral Psychology
Conditioning
Psycholinguistics
Cognitive Psychology
Psychoanalysis
Experimental Psychology
Goals of Psychology
Learn from History
Full transcript