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Unit12 Social Psychology (2017)
Transcript of Unit12 Social Psychology (2017)
Ways in which people think about other people and how those cognition influence behavior toward those other people
The way in which a person's behavior or attitude can be affected by other people.
Relationship between people: Causal & Intimate
What is the role CULTURE plays in influencing the INDIVIDUAL?
A program of shared rules that governs the behavior of members
A set of values, beliefs, and customs shared by most members of that community
Explain & understand
Evaluating the social world
Attribution theory: Explaining behaviors
Attribution is the process that people are motivated to explain own and others’ behavior
by attributing causes of behavior to a situation or a disposition.
Behavior can be attributed to:
Trait (internal attribution) VS Situation (external attribution)
When attributing others' behaviors
- Tendency to overestimate the
internal characteristics & underestimate the situational effects
When attributing own behaviors..
- Tendency to overestimate the
situational effect & underestimate the dispositional effect
(We are the actors)
-Self-Serving Bias: Special case of Actor-Observer Bias favorable to ourselves
People in the individualistic
(usually Western) cultures are more common to make the fundamental attribution error than people in the collectivistic cultures (usually Eastern).
Attitudes: Evaluating the Social World
Positive or negative evaluation of different aspects of the social world
(i.e., ideas, people, objects, situations)
The ABC Model of Attitudes: Comprises of these components
ffective (= feelings),
ognitive (= Thoughts)
Efforts to influence people’s attitudes
by what means
= the communicator/Source;
= target audience
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
Either elaborate (add details & information) or attend to the surface characteristics of messages
Appeals to sense
Appeals to logic
Different attitudes in conflicts
Attitudes & behaviors in conflicts
Cognitive Dissonance: an internal state which results when individuals
notice inconsistency between two or more attitudes, or attitudes & behaviors
Emotional discomfort & physiological arousal
Try to reduce the internal conflict
Change Belief: Change attitudes or behavior to be consistent with each other
Support Belief: Acquire information that supports attitude or behavior
Downplay Belief: Engage in trivialization of the inconsistency, concluding that the attitudes or behaviors are unimportant
Following the groups
- Individuals change their attitudes or behavior in order to
adhere to social norms
- Does not necessarily result from a direct request
Why do people conform?
To be liked: Normative social influence
Act in a way to be liked and accepted by others
To be smart: Informational social influence
Other's behaviors as cues to act when the situation is ambiguous
- Individuals change their attitudes or behavior in response to a
direct request from another
- Does not involve authority or power
An unsupported and often negatively stereotyped attitudes of another person or a group of people.
E.g., ageism, sexism, racism…
- Beliefs (Stereotype)
- Emotions (Hostility, fear, etc.)
- Negative behaviors (Discrimination)
Liking & Loving
Liking or having the desire for a relationship with someone
Why does prejudice happen?
Pro-social / Altruistic
Acting in a socially desirable way to benefits others
Acting in a way to hurt to destroy others
- Sigmund Freud : Death instinct
- Brain structures: Frontal lobes, amygdala, other structures of the limbic system
- Body chemicals : Testosterone (male sex hormone)
- Frustration-aggression hypothesis: - Frustration & aggression feed each other
- Anderson's study (2003): Violent media & aggressive behavior in children correlate with each other
- Effect of drugs and alcohol
- Social Roles: Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo, 1971)
Obedience towards Violence:
The power of social roles through Stanford Prison Experiment
Social role: Roles prescribed in a social situation
e.g.: student, professor, doctor…
Philip Zimbardo (1971) Stanford Prison experiment
Randomly assign young people into “guard”&“prisoner”
Guards were given uniform and instructions not to use violence but to maintain control of the prison.
Prisoners were booked at a real jail, blindfolded, and transported to the campus “prison” (i.e., basement of the campus).
The effect of putting on the uniform and taking on the social role change our behaviors radically.
Helping with no expectation of reward & often without fear for one’s own safety
Notice the situation?
Ambiguity of the situation?
Your responsibility to help?
Able to help?
Cost of helping?
Gender of the victim?
Physical attractiveness of the victim?
"Someone else will do"
"I thought one of them would do something"
Bｙstander effect (Darley & Latane, 1968)
— Less likely to help if other bystanders are present
Ｄｉｆｆｕｓｉｏｎ ｏｆ ｒｅｓｐｏｎｓｉｂｉｌｉｔｙ
— Ｆails to take responsibility for either action or inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
Help or not? Bystander Intervention
True Meaning of Love
Robert Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love
Decisions about the relationship
Physically, emotional and sexual arousal a
person feels toward the other person
Psychologically， Sense of having close emotional ties to another
Ｔｈｒｅｅ ｃｏｍｐｏｎｅｎｔｓ in Triangular Model ｏｆ ｌｏｖｅ
Seven Kinds ｏｆ Lｏｖｅ from
Sternberg's Triangular Model
In Vs Out Group - Social Categorization
We unconsciously categorize a new person into different groups based on characteristics that this person has in common with other people or groups
In-group “US” VS Out-group “THEM”
- Allow us to process quickly new information and retrieve memories
- Help to make sense of differences among individuals, predict how people will behave, save effort
- Distort reality
- Exaggerate differences between groups
- Produce selective perception
- Underestimate within-group differences
ABC Model of Attitude
Direct contact with the person / idea / situation / object
E.g. I like large umbrellas
Direct instruction of other people
E.g. Broccoli is good for your health.
Interaction with others
E.g. All my friends thought planking is cool, & so do I...
"Dama" on public transportation are annoying
The Science of Persuasion (Cialdini, 1985)
Science of Persuasion
InfluenceAtWork: Narrated by Robert Cialdini
Strategies to minimize Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance on Premarital Sex
The Ash Experiment on Conformity
Groups influence our performances in terms of:
Reduction of motivation and effort when individuals work in a group to work individually
Presence of other people acts to increase arousal which weaken (i.e., social impairment)/ enhance (i.e., social facilitation) performance
depends on the task difficulty and the level of arousal
The lessening of the sense of personal identity and personal responsibility
loss of self-awareness & self-restraint
People within a group feel it is more important to maintain the group’s cohesiveness than to consider the facts realistically
The tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme position
suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion
MTR Announcement: "Please stand back from the train doors"
Techniques for increasing Compliance
Starts a small request
When it is granted, escalate to a larger one
Starts a large request (usually refused)
Retreat to a smaller request
Starts with a lucrative offer
Then change it to a less attractive one after the target person has accepted it
Foot-In-The-Door Technique by Richard Wiserman
one or more others to perform some actions.
– Usually involves authority, power, and hierarchy
Stanley Milgram Experiments on Conformity (1963, 1974)
From Milgram's experiment - Ethics in psychological research
"How far should researchers be willing to go to answer a question of interest?"
Points for ethical consideration in psychological research:
Potential harm to research participants
Rights to withdraw from experiment
Informed consent and debriefing
Realistic conflict theory
Resources is limited, prejudice and discrimination are closely tied to an increasing degree of conflict between groups that seek common resources (e.g., job opportunity, land)
Conform to the views of friends, relatives, or peers
People compare themselves favorably to others to improve their own self-esteem
Social Identity (In-group Vs Out-group)
People from diverse backgrounds find common ground to start building friendships and knowledge of each other’s cultural, ethnic, or religious differences.
Neither of them hold power over the others
E.g., Jigsaw classroom: different students hold different information, they have to contact in order to reach a specific goal
One's knowledge of another’s stereotypes opinions can have on that person’s behavior
- The effect that expectations can have on outcomes.
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
Excerpt from Documentary on Stanford Prison Experiment
Social Experiment - Gender effect on bystanders' help
Illustrating Bystander Effect
Factors in making decisions in altruistic behavior
Liking & Love
Aggression & Pro-social / Altruistic Behaviors
We make attributions of events to external or internal causes, often with biases
Attitude comprises affective, behavioral, & cognitive components; attitude changes with persuasion could improve with Cialdini's 6 factor model
Tendency to conform is often underestimated; we behave differently as individuals & as a group when we conform
Compliance: Various techniques could increase likelihood of compliance
Obedience: We often find ourselves subject to influence of authority by obeying, even on tasks that we normally would not engage in
Prejudice allows fast heuristic about groups at the cost of undermining within-group difference
Love is multi-dimensional: Sternberg's Triangular Model of Love breaks down intimate relationship into intimacy, passion, and compassion
Aggression & Pro-social / Altruistic Behaviors: Aggression & altruistic behaviors are subject to situational influences