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John Kay~Industrial Revolution
Transcript of John Kay~Industrial Revolution
*Textile Companies quickly adopted the flying shuttle.
*John also invented a spinning machine that pre-dated Thomas Highs and James Hargreaves by more than a decade.
*Other competitors were threatened by his success.
*They claimed that his invention would make the demand for weavers decrease since the Flying Shuttle replaced the job of one weaver. This would cause people to lose their jobs.
*In 1753, an angry mob of people broke into his house and destroyed his looms.
*His invention was then adopted without paying him for his
*He lost all of his money in legal battles, defending his patent.
*He then left and moved to France where he
died a poor man in poverty in 1764.
*His son, Robert, continued the Kay family tradition by inventing the 'drop box' in 1769 that allowed rapid interchange of multiple shuttles with different colored threads on one loom. *John Kay was born on July 16, 1704 in the Lancashire town of Bury, England.
*He was the 12th child of a yeoman farming family.
*John was born without his father (Robert) and his mother (Ellin) was responsible for teaching him until she remarried.
*He was placed in charge of his father's mill when he was still young. There, he developed skills as a machinist and an engineer.
*When he was old enough, he went to apprentice a hand -loom reed maker. He returned home after a short time saying that he had mastered the art. *John showed his first hint of genius when he designed a replacement for reeds made from polished wire.
*He proved to be so popular with the weavers that Kay was kept busy making, selling, and fitting reeds to looms all over the country.
*Reeds are comb-like devices attached to the hand loom that kept the warp threads together.
*By 1730, he was back in Bury where he patented a machine for twisting and cording mohair and worsted. *John Kay revolutionized the cotton weaving process.
*His "flying shuttle" was the first true mechanization of the textile weaving process.
*The automation of making textiles marked the beginning of the industrial revolution.
*His invention led to halved labor costs in the textile industry. *John Kay invented The Flying Shuttle.
*This was an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster.
*The original shuttle contained a bobbin on which the crossways yarn was wound. It was normally pushed from one side of the warp to the other side by hand. Large looms needed two weavers to throw the shuttle.
*The flying shuttle was thrown by a leaver that could be operated by one weaver.
*Before the flying shuttle, it was only possible for cloth to be woven up to a maximum of the width of a man's body, across his arms because he had to pass the shuttle backwards and forwards from hand to hand.
*John patented the flying shuttle in 1733 as apart of "New Engine of Machine for Opening and Dressing Wool."
*The Flying Shuttle was operated by pulling a cord that drove the shuttle to either side, freeing one hand of the weaver to press home the weft.
*This improvement to looms helped weavers weave faster, more efficiently, and allowed them to make larger textiles.
*Now, a single weaver could produce a wide piece of cloth.
*Before, a loom needed two or more weavers to throw the shuttle.
* John put the shuttle on wheels and controlled it with a driver.
*On the Flying Shuttle, the weaver operated the shuttle by pulling a cord attached to the driver. When this cord was pulled to the left, the driver caused the shuttle to shoot ("fly") through the warp in the same direction. Pulling the cord to the right sent the shuttle back. Lasting Legacy John Kay Works Sited www.britannica.com
www.saburchill.com A Hand-Loom........ "In the year 1764 Mr. John Kay wrote a letter to the Society of Arts and Manufactures in which he says:
"'I have a great many more inventions than what I have given in; and the reason that I have not put them forward is the bad treatment that I had from woollen and cotton factories, in different parts of England, twenty years ago; and then I applied to Parliament, and they would not assist me in my affairs, which obliged me to go abroad to get money to pay my debts and support my family.'"
****Taken from Memoir of John Kay of Bury by John Lord, William Lord ~pg. 112
****Found on Google Books searched with 'John Kay' Primary Source Document In this document, John Kay tells the Society of Arts and Manufactures that he has been poorly treated by woolen and cotton factories because of the Flying Shuttle Invention. Other people in the textile industry were threatened by his invention. He also mentions that he asked for help from the Parliament but was unable to receive any aid in order to get money to survive. He had to go elsewhere to get money since he and his family were poor although he had a successful invention that revolutionized the weaving process in the textile industry. Bury, England Flying Shuttle Spinning Machine also invented by John Kay