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Unit 12: Social Psychology

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Transcript of Unit 12: Social Psychology

Unit 12:
Social Psychology

Goals
Essential Task: 12-1
Essential Task: 12-2
Essential Task: 12-3
Essential Task: 12-4
Essential Task: 12-5
Essential Task: 12-6
Explain how individuals respond to expectations of obedience with specific reference to the work and findings of Stanley Milgram.
Discuss attitude formation and how attitudes change with specific attention to cognitive dissonance, routes to persuasion (central and peripheral), and compliance (foot-in-the-door/door-in-the-face).

Explain how individuals respond to expectations of conformity with specific reference to social influences (normative and informative), situational factors (Philip Zimbardo) and summarize the work of Solomon Asch.
Apply attribution theory to explain the behavior of others with specific attention to the fundamental attribution error, self-serving bias, just-world hypothesis and differences between collectivistic and individualistic cultures.
Predict the impact of others on individual behavior with specific attention to self-fulfilling prophecy, deindividuation, social loafing, and social facilitation/social inhibition.
Describe the structure and function of different kinds of group behavior with specific attention to group polarization and groupthink.

Attribution Theory
Attribution Theory
What:
Tries to explain
how
people make
judgments
about the
causes
of other people's behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to
underestimate
the impact of a
situation
(external)

and
overestimate
the impact of personality
(internal)
Example:
Applications
Self Serving Bias
What:
Just World Hypothesis
What:
Attribution error -
assumption
that attributes
bad things
happen to
bad people

and
good things
happen to
good people
Attitudes
What:
Feelings that
predispose
us to
respond
in a particular way to objects, people and events
Persuasion
Persuasion
Two forms:
Central Route to Persuasion
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
Using
positive
or
negative
cues (
ex.
images, sounds or language)
associated with the topic to persuade
Using
facts, logic, good reasoning
to persuade
"
P
retty and
H
umor"
"Actually makes
CENT
s (sense)"
Cognitive Dissonance
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon
What:
Compliance strategy
- tendency for people who have
first
agreed
to a
small request

to comply later with a
larger request
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Who:
Leon Festinger
Believed:
Example
Person
knows
smoking causes health problems
BAD
person wants to smoke
Ways to Resolve Cognitive Dissonance
Changing your attitude
Example:
Gossiping about your friend...
ex.

"Well he was more of an acquaintance than a friend"
Reduce the importance of one side
ex.

"Well the person I gossiped with won't tell too many people."
Increase the number of thoughts that support one side
ex.
"It was awesome gossip."
One side:
You accept climate change
Other Side:
You drive a SUV
DISSONANCE CAUSED
The Power of the Situation/Role
Who:
Philip Zimbardo
When:
1971
What:
Stanford Prison Experiment
Aim:
If
randomly assigned
into guards/prisoners - would people behave according to role stereotypes?
Found:
Zimbardo had to call off the experiment in less than a week -
SITUATIONS
have
TREMENDOUS

effects on
identity

and our
morals
Conformity
Conformity
What:
Adjusting
one's behavior or thinking to
MATCH
with the group standard
Obedience
Who:
Solomon Asch
Aim:
Investigate extent to which
pressure
from a
majority group
could cause a person to
conform
A
B
C
Which line matches line Z in length?
Z
How:
Asch Demo
( )
Asch's Findings
At least
75%
of participants conform
once
(though about 33% of total responses)
Influences on Conformity
Group is
unanimous
Group is at least
3
(likelihood
stops
increasing at 4)
Participant is
observed
(likelihood
decreases
with PRIVATE responses)
Reason for Conformity
Normative Social Influence
Informative Social Influence
Person's desire to
gain approval
or avoid punishment
Person's
willingness
to accept others' opinions about reality
"They must have all the
informati
on..."
"I want to seem
norma
l!"
Obedience
What:
When you change your opinions, judgments, or actions

because

someone in a position of
authority
told you to
Studies
Milgram's Obedience Experiment
Who:
Stanley Milgram
Aim:
Study how far people would go in
obeying
an instruction
if it
involved harming people (
ex.
Nazi Germany)
How:
"Continue please"
"The experiment requires that you continue."
"It is absolutely essential that you continue."
"You have no other choice teacher."
Milgram's Results
Results:
60%
of participants continued to the highest voltage! -
WAY
over expectations
Findings:
Ordinary people are likely to
obey
demands given by
legitimate authority figures
-
even
killing innocent people
Foundational Attribution Terminology:
Internal factors
External Factors
"Why did Paul fail his license test?"
"
He
doesn't know how to drive."
"
He
didn't study."
"Terrible car."
"Bad teachers."
"Sun level."
"Room was too hot."
"
He
doesn't care."
1 Dissenter:
MUCH
less conformity
Group Behavior
Impact of Others
Group Dynamics
Social Facilitation and Inhibition
Play better in your
facilit
y
"Home field Advantage"
Deindividuation
What:
Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in
group situations
that foster
arousal
and
anonymity
"Mob Mentality"
Social Loafing
What:
Group Polarization
Tendency of an individual in a group to give
less
effort toward a common goal than if tested individually
Group Work?
You got this.
Polar
What:
Tendency to shift toward more extreme positions after group discussion
Go to
POLAR
ends
Neutral
Risky
Cautious
Before Group Discussion
After Group Discussion
Neutral
Risky
Cautious
Groupthink
What:
Occurs when the
desire
for harmony in a decision-making group

overrides
realistic analysis
Example:
Jonestown
inhibit
=
to restrain
Differential Treatment
Attraction
Interpersonal Attraction
Why do we finds others attractive?
Proximity
Physical Attraction
Similarity
Geographic nearness
mere-exposure effect
What:
Repeated exposure to a new stimuli increases attraction
Similar views strengthen potential bond
In-Group vs. Out-Group Bias
In-Group Bias
Out-Group Bias
What:
Tendency to favor one 's own
"in-group"
and thus favorably
(
called:

in-group bias
)
What:
Coincidence? I think not.
Example:
Opposing Sports Fans or School Rivals
Bystander Effect
What:
Tendency of any given bystander to be
less likely
to give aid
if
other bystanders are present
Helping Others
Altruism
What:
An unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Why Do We Help?
Groupthink... group
drink
? Drink the Kool-Aid.
(mass suicide of 1000 followers)
Ethnocentrism
What:
Belief that your society, group, or culture is
superior

to others
Different cultural standards are seen as somehow
bad
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Ex.
Volunteering
without
receiving any benefits
People will help those needing their help -
even
if they do not benefit
Social Exchange Theory
What:
Our social behavior is an
exchange process.
The aim is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
Reciprocity Norm
We learn to
help
and not harm those who have
helped us
What:
Social–Responsibility Norm
What:
Peacemaking
cost-benefit analysis
Ex.
Blood Drive
"
Should I
exchange

my time and

blood
for the good feelings
?"
Give
Receive
Way to limit group tension:
subordinate goals
What:
shared goals that override differences among people and their cooperation
ex.

Ever been paired with someone you do not like? Getting a good grade is a
subordinate goal
May, 2014
Becomes teammates
Now:
What:
Prejudice
What:
Unjustifiable
attitude/thoughts
toward a group and its members
(
ex.
cultural, gender)
Door-in-the-Face Phenomenon
Compliance
Essential Task: 12-7
Describe processes that contribute to attraction (mere exposure effect), love (passionate and compassionate), altruism (reciprocity norm, social exchange theory, social-responsibility norm, subordinate goals).
When:
1960s
Stanley Milgram - "The Perils of Obedience"
"The extreme willingness of adults to go to almost any lengths on the command of an authority constitutes the chief finding of the study and the fact most urgently demanding explanation.”
predispose
Discomfort when a person has two
contradictory
beliefs at the same time
AND
tries to reduce that discomfort
BUT
Person is said to be experiencing

"cognitive dissonance"
Compliance
What:
Change in behavior as a
result
of a
direct

request or
rule from another individual or institution
Applying to a college with a
deadline
?
You are
COMPLYING
with the
DIRECT
rules of the institution.
How does
COMPLIANCE
differ from
OBEDIENCE
?
Doesn't
require authority figure -
ever buy junk at from a mall kiosk?
Example:
You are stopped by those floor folk in the mall...
"Excuse me - would you like to do this simple task that is not time consuming?"
foot is now
"in-the-door"
"Now if you buy this $500 remote controlled stuffed animal..."
Door-in-the-Face Phenomenon
What:
Compliance strategy
- tendency for people who have
first

REJECTED
a
LARGE

request t
o comply later with a
SMALLER
request
Want your sibling to
comply
to your direct request of taking out the trash?
HECK NO!
"Can you rake all the leaves in the front yard?"
LARGE DEMAND:
FINE.
"Can you at least take out the trash?
SMALLER DEMAND:
2013
What:
What:
M
M
2006
FRQ
Term
2006
Asch's Conformity Study
M
As
c
h
Looks like the line demo
A
B
C
Which line matches line Z in length?
Z
A
B
C
Which line matches line Z in length?
Z
What:
What:
M
M
NORMA
tive
INFORMATI
ve
make someone inclined to a specific attitude/action
(like animals have
PREDISPOSITIONS
to learn taste aversion)
"
IN
the person"
M
IN
ternal to the person
Attributing
the behavior of...
OVER
ESTIMATING

Personality
UNDER
ESTIMATING
Situation
"ABSOLUTELY MEAN!"
"No heart!"
"CRUEL!"
Might Darth Vader seem mean because he had many
bad days.
"Horrible person."
"Diabolical!"
Failure
Tendency to
attribute

OUR

successes
on
OUR
efforts
(internal)
and
OUR

failures
to
external
factors
Success
"
I
am so smart!"
"
I
studied so well!"
"
I
am the G.O.A.T.!"
"
I
am SO talented!"
"My
teacher
is terrible."
"Test was on a
Monday
."
"Test was
too early
."
"My
teacher
hates me."
"Who could pass this
impossible class
?"
"
Room
was too cold."
"Terrible
assignment
."
Victim of a crime?
You are a
bad person
who deserves it.
Classic victim blaming:
"Robbed? Your fault."
Cultural Influences on Attribution
Collectivist Culture
Individualist Culture
What:
What:
Emphasis on the
needs
of the
oneself
as opposed to the group
Importance placed on the
needs
of the
group
rather than the individual
"Evil driver. Terrible person. No concern for others."
"Must be experiencing a family emergency and need to get home."
(internal - personality)
(external - situation)
social
facilit
ation
M
M
Improved performance on tasks
you are
good
at

in the presence
of
others
Social Facilitation
social
inhibit
ion
Aka.
what happens with every group project

M
M
1
2
3
Tendency to view others as
"out-group"
and thus negatively (
called:
out
-group bias
)
Passionate Love
Love
Classic Example:

Kitty Genovese
(38 people failed to help Kitty)
M
REC
i
PRO
city
REC
=
REC
eive
PRO
=
PRO
vide
i
Why?
Bystanders believe that the
"responsibility"

to respond is
"diffused"
amongst all there (known as the
"diffusion of responsibility"
)
When the expectations about someone lead that person
(directly or indirectly)
to behave that way
ex.
"This new hire looks like they are going to be a
terrible worker
!"
Now you
unknowingly
train them
poorly
They get fired
TOLD YOU SO!
Consistent across cultures for

evolutionary
benefit:
Men tend to be more attracted to
fertile appearance
Women tend to be more attracted to
dominance
and
affluence
Group
Polar
ization
Forms of Love
Companionate Love
Intense state of
arousal
and positive absorption one feels toward another - usually early in a relationship
The later stage of a relationship characterized with deep, affectionate
attachment
- think about a
couple married
for 30 years
What:
Later
M
PASS

the notebook
PASS
ionate love
What:
Early
M
COM
panionate
"
COM
e see grandma and grandpa!"
Every
term from this unit could be applied to the behavior of the participants at a football game (ex fan,coaches players, referees, etc.)
Examples:
How might the following impact player performance:
Social loafing
Social inhibition
Social facilitation
Subordinate goals
How might the following impact the crowd behavior:
Group polarization
Deindividuation
In/Out Group (bias)
Conformity (normative/information social influence)
Ethnocentrism
Prejudice
Stereotypes (schema)
Passionate/Companionate love
Groupthink
Compliance
Obedience
Mere exposure effect

How might the following impact the behavior of food vendors:
Compliance (Foot-in-the-door/Door-in-the-face)
Persuasion (Peripheral/Central routes)
Situational factors (Zimbardo study)
How might the following explain how players attribution THEIR performance OR the performance of their teammates:
Self-serving
Just-world hypothesis
Fundamental attribution error
Interval/External factors of attribution
Individualistic/collectivist culture
Self-fulfilling prophecy
How might the following explain why the homeless man out the stadium does or does not receive donations:
Bystander effect (diffusion of responsibility)
Social exchange theory
Reciprocity norm
Social responsibility norm
Altruism
Cognitive dissonance
Milgram Variations
WAY
ONE
WAY
TWO
WAY
THREE
All three make gossiping

not
as bad
P
eri
PH
eral
CENT
ral
Attitude Formation
1
2
3
What
caused
this guy to run a red light?!?
"
EX
-girlfriend made me fail."
M
EX
ternal
Influences
What:
Social Inhibition
Weakened performance on (
difficult
)
tasks
in the presence
of
others
What:
Anyone
hate
public speaking?
During practice -
Fine
During class?
WORSE
performance
Clark Doll Study
Attraction, Love and Help
Influences
Why Help?
c
What:
Essential Task: 12-8
Describe the impact of social and cultural categories (gender, race, ethnicity) on self-concept and relations with others and how to in-group/out-group dynamics (such as ingroup bias), scapegoat theory, ethnocentrism, and prejudice contribute to differential treatment.
Who:
Mamie/Kenneth Clark
c
Aim:
Study the effects of
systematic racism
(ex. discrimination via segregation in the south)
on self-perception and
prejudice
Findings:
Majority of children
preferred
the white dolls showing the negative effects of discrimination
Explicit vs. Implicit Bias
Explicit Bias
What:
What:
Implicit Bias
Attitude or belief we

KNOW

we have towards a person/group
Attitude or belief we
DO NOT

KNOW

we have towards a person/group
Findings:
Analyzing Zimbardo
1.
APA ethical guidelines?
2.
Moments of conformity?
3.
Power of the situation?
1 -
Sporting Event
2 -
School Setting
3 -
Driving
4 -
Airport
5 -
Work Setting
6 -
Concert
1 -
Individualist Culture
2 -
Collectivist Culture
3 -
Fundamental Attribution Error
4 -
Self-Serving Bias
(your own behavior)
5 -
Just World Hypothesis
6 -
Internal
OR
External Attribution
(opponent picks)
Roll One
Roll Two
Create a quote that illustrates the how the term
(roll one)
impacts the attribution of a behavior found in the setting
(roll two)
Why
Do We Help?
1) List reasons people are likely to help others
Next to those reasons mark if that help is only for the sake of others (
O
) or for there is self benefit (
S
)
2) As you watch the video clip, list the arguments you agree with and those you disagree with
Full transcript