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EARTH BATTERY SETUPS
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In today’s world, electricity is the choice of energy of almost everybody due to its vast applications. But inasmuch as we need it in our lives, its supply is also becoming scarcer each day. Good thing there are lots of renewable sources or alternatives for it, many of which are still under intensive research and development. Energy is certainly everywhere; the only problem is on how we harness it.
One of the devices which need electricity is cellular phone. Cellular phones are the first choice when it comes to communication medium nowadays. Cell sites of different networks are built in almost all the areas of the world for better transmission of information. But what’s the sense of very good signals when you are living in a place where electricity does not exist? Once your cellular phone ran out of battery, it is already useless.
FOR CELLULAR PHONE CHARGING
Earth has been proven to generate electricity. Numerous studies have been made regarding its capability of doing so. This is possible through the earth battery concept. Different researches successfully applied it making LEDs work. Earth battery has been used, remodeled, and is currently being developed for more possible purposes
The need for the development of other possible energy sources for the growing energy crisis and the potential of the earth as a free energy source led the researchers to make a study regarding the evaluation of the application of Earth Battery setups for cellular phone charging. The researchers are hopeful that the results of the study will not just only introduce an effective earth battery setup for optimal cellular phone charging but will also provide the necessary statistical data and evaluative results for future innovations and development of the said study.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The study will be conducted to evaluate the application of Earth Battery setups for cellular phone charging. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. Is there a significant relationship between the type of soil used in the setup and the amount of voltage produced/generated?
2. Is there a significant relationship between the amounts of vinegar to the amount of voltage generated/produced?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the number of series-connected setups and the amount of voltage generated/produced?
4. For how long will the earth battery setup produce the necessary 5 volts requirement for cellular phone charging in each proposed setups?
5. What is the major factor that affects the charging capacity of the soil?
This research study aims to evaluate the application of Earth Battery setups for cellular phone charging.
1. It aims to evaluate the significant relationship between the type of soil used in each setup and the voltage generated.
2. It aims to evaluate the significant relationship between the number of series-connected setups and the voltage generated.
3. It aims to evaluate the period at which the earth battery produces the aimed 5 Volts.
This research study covers the evaluation on the application of Earth Battery setups for cellular phone charging. The study focuses on the type of soil in each Earth Battery setup, the number of series-connected setups, and the period at which the earth battery produces the aimed 5 Volts.
The research study covers the following:
1. The study does not cover the specific analysis and the technical characteristics/compositions of the soil.
2. The study shall be limited to the statistical evaluation of four different earth battery setups.
3. The study does not concern the geographical source of the soil.
4. The study does not cover complex correlational analysis between dependent and independent factors.
The researchers will use the following assumptions as their guide:
The chapter aims to present the different literatures and related studies that have direct bearing with the study. The researchers tried to gather information which was relevant to the present study.
a pair of electrodes made of two dissimilar metals, such as iron and copper, which are buried in the soil or immersed in the sea.
In 1841, Alexander Bain built the very first example of an earth battery. It was used to drive a prime mover. Bain buried copper and zinc plates in the ground about one meter apart. The resulting voltage of about only one volt was used to operate a clock.
A Dutch product designer named Marieke Staps made use of a very old concept -- drawing electricity from dirt -- in order to produce the elegant Soil Lamp. The design of the lamp is creative and innovative, but what makes it produce light is an "earth battery."
Marieke Staps' Soil Lamp
Staps presented her soil lamp as a “free and environmentally friendly energy forever and ever. The lamp runs on mud. The metabolism of biological life together with the chemical reaction of copper and zinc produce enough electricity to keep a LED lamp burning. The mud is enclosed in various cells. These cells contain copper and zinc that conduct the electricity. The more cells there are, the more electricity they generate. This technique offers a wealth of possibilities. The only thing that the lamp needs is a splash of water every now and then.”
SOURCES OF DATA
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
Dadule, Daisy Rose E.
Maarat, Roy Mark D.
Parangue, Johnlery T.
The results of the study will offer an introduction to the application of earth battery technology, which is commonly used in the past for lighting only small LED's, to now be newly applied for greater loads which is for charging cellular phones.
The results of the study will not just only introduce an effective earth battery setup for optimal cellular phone charging but will also provide the necessary statistical data and evaluative results for future innovations and development of the said study.
The statistical evaluation will be of great help in providing comprehensive results for the better understanding of this new arising technology which will be one of the ever-growing free energy solutions to our vast energy crisis.
For the researchers, it is hoped that the results of the study will give them more insights about the new application of Earth Battery technology to cellular phone charging and will be introducing new prospects for other applications of this new alternative free energy source for other loads and applications.
a.) First setup: The earth battery setup utilizes nails made up of copper and galvanized zinc inserted on the loam type of soil.
b.) Second setup: The earth battery setup utilizes nails made up of copper and galvanized zinc inserted on the seashore mud.
1. The earth battery setup is applied in cellular phone charging.
2. The earth battery setup uses the loam type of soil, the seashore soil, loam with vinegar, and loam with ash.
3. The proposed setups consists of an earth battery setup, a 5 volts filter circuit, and a cellular phone charging port.
c.) Third setup: The earth battery setup utilizes nails made up of copper and galvanized zinc inserted on loam soil with vinegar.
d.) Fourth setup: The earth battery setup utilizes nails made up of copper and galvanized zinc inserted on the loam with ash.
5.The setup materials are designed to be readily available and limitations are made to ensure that the project will be simple in design and convenient.
Materials needed for the earth battery setups should be available.
Information about the study/project should be available.
In 1898, Nathan Stubblefield received US patent 600457 for his electrolytic coil battery, which was a combination of an earth battery and a solenoid. The battery generated power for telegraph transmissions and the solenoid formed part of a tuned circuit that amplified the signaling voltage.
-the negatively charged terminal of a primary cell or of a storage battery that is supplying the current.
-the positively charged terminal of a primary cell or a storage battery that is supplying current.
-a positively charged electrode, as of an electrolytic cell, storage battery, or electron tube.
-a negatively charged electrode, as of an electrolytic cell, a storage battery, or an electron tube.
This chapter presents source of data, data gathering procedure, and methods and procedure.
All the data were collected using the multi-tester from the earth battery setups. Voltage readings from the multi-tester were recorded and served as the raw data for statistical evaluation.
The data gathered through voltage readings of the multi-tester were tabulated and evaluated using statistical analysis. Gathering of data was classified and limited based from the three conditions: the type of soil in each Earth Battery setup, the number of series-connected setups, and the period at which the earth battery produces the aimed 5 Volts.
The following materials will be used by the researchers in conducting the study:
Copper / Iron rods
Galvanized Zinc rods / Aluminum cans
Different soil types
1-270 ohm resistor
(2) N4001 Diodes
METHODS AND PROCEDURES
For each of the proposed setups, the researchers performed the following procedure: first, the researchers collected certain amount of soil and put it in the plastic cups. At least six (6) containers of soil were gathered. Once the soil has been compressed in the container, the copper and galvanized steel rods were inserted. Then, a multi-tester was used to determine whether the soil would produce voltage and noted how much voltage it produced.
Soil containers were connected in series with one another and the produced voltages were measured. The data were recorded and tabulated at different time intervals.
4. There are four proposed earth battery setups that the study will cover.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
Furthermore, the results of this study hopes to inspire future Electrical Engineering students which will be taking up the same research topic to develop the study to broader applications for the betterment of the society.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
Based on the experimentations and observations made by the researchers, the voltages generated by different setups are tabulated as follows:
Using 10 cups of loam soil with 270-Ω resistor and 2 LEDs (blue & red color) as loads.
Using 10 cups of soil from the seashore with 270-Ω resistor and 2 LEDs (blue & red color) as loads.
Using 10 cups of compressed loam soil mixed with 2 tablespoons of vinegar having 270-Ω resistor and 2 LEDs (blue & red color) as loads.
Using 10 cups of loam soil mixed with ash having 270-Ω resistor and 2 LEDs (blue & red color) as loads.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
In comparison with the voltage generation of the four earth battery setups, five (5) results per setup were taken. The voltage generated by setups were checked periodically between time=0, 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1hour and 2 hours.
With the use of ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), the researchers tested the hypothesis of no difference between the four earth battery setups as regards with the voltage generated at no load.
no difference between soil type with respect to voltage generated at no load
there is a difference between soil type with respect to voltage generated at no load
@ Significance Level = 5%
Degrees of freedom, v1 =
-1 = 3
and, v2 = N-
= 20-4 = 16
Critical region is F > 3.24
The ANOVA table is now as follows:
(Mean square = Sum of Squares / Degree of Freedom)
F Ratio = 5.526/0.284 = 19.427
The F ratio of 19.427 lies in the critical region.
Thus there is evidence, at the 5% significance level, to suggest that there is a difference between soil types as regards to voltage each generates at no load.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
Based on the experimentations and tests done, the following findings are obtained:
The current needed for charging a cellular phone battery was not met by any of the setups.
At no load, each of the earth battery setups produced more than 5 volts; with load the readings were lower than the desired voltage.
Using the ANOVA, it was found that there is a difference between soil types as regards to voltage each generates at no load: there is a significant relationship between the type of soil used in the setup and the amount of voltage produced/generated.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
The researchers made other experiments to further obtain information.
Using 4 cups of loam soil to charge a 2.4 V rechargeable battery.
Using 4 cups of loam soil to charge a 2.4 V rechargeable battery
(The soil is put on the cups 5 days before testing)
Using 8 cups of loam soil having a 270-Ω resistor and an LED as load.
Using 6 cups of loam soil having a 1N001 diode, 270 Ω, and an LED as load.
Using 16 cups of soil with 270 Ω, 1N4001 diode, and 3 LEDs (green, red, and blue) as loads.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
FINDINGS FOR ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS
Experiments A and B showed that the transfer of charge from the earth battery to the rechargeable 2.7 V battery was slow.
Basing from the Setups 1-4, experiments C,D, and E, there is a significant relationship between the number of series-connected setups and the amount of voltage generated/produced.
Experimentations and tests were made by the researchers to obtain the data needed. For every setup (loam soil, soil from the sea shore, soil with vinegar, and soil mixed with ash), 10 cups were gathered and connected in series to produce high voltage basing on the concept of KVL. The results of experiment showed that Setup 3 had the highest initial voltage and ampere rating. After two hours of observing, Setup 3 still had the highest value of the voltage and current. But based on percent regulation, Setup 4 has the highest regulation.
The voltage and current also varies from load and time. As the time increases, the voltage diminishes. Also, the higher the load connected, the lower the voltage rating of the earth battery setup becomes.
Further tests revealed that there is a significant relationship between the number of series-connected setups and the amount of voltage generated/produced. Ampere ratings of the setups are too low that they did not meet the charging rate capacity of any cellular phone battery.
With the information obtained from the tests and experiments done, the researchers conclude that it is possible to use an earth battery setup for cellular phone charging only if the ampere rating will be raised that it meets the charging rate capacity of the battery to be charged.
From the additional tests conducted, the following conclusions are drawn:
Rechargeable batteries can be recharged with an earth battery setup but the transfer of the charge is slow.
The more acidic the soil and the more compressed it is, the higher the voltage and the current produced, so it will be best to use acidic soil.
The greater the number of series-connected setups, the higher voltage is generated/produced.
Based from the results of the tests and experiments, the researchers recommended that further and in-depth studies be made to raise the low ampere ratings produced by the earth batteries for it is only possible to charge a cellular phone battery if the setup meets the charging rate capacity of the battery to be charged. It is also recommended to find ways on how to increase the power to be produced by an earth battery.
Moreover, the researchers recommend that further study and experiments be made to fully understand the earth battery concept and its characteristics. Since the researchers have proven that the charge produced by an earth battery setup can be transferred to rechargeable batteries, it is suggested that studies be made to increase the rate of transfer.
The researchers further recommend that in order to have a higher voltage, the more series connected setups can be made. To have a greater current, the more parallel connected sources can be made. In addition, the researchers recommend that acidic soil be used to make a battery setup that would produce greater current and voltage.