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Time Line for the Chinese Civil War
Transcript of Time Line for the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War 1927 The Beginning KMT-CCP rival facilitation broke out
as the result of The Northern Expedition The leftists rejected Chiang's demand to
remove the location of the KMT government
based on the location of CCP. This resulted Chiang's dissatisfaction. On April 7, Chiang and several other KMT leaders held a meeting arguing that communist activities were socially and economically disruptive, and must be undone for the national revolution to proceed. The KMT was purged of leftists by the arrest and execution of hundreds of CCP members. It was directed by General Bai Chongxi.
The CCPhad been expelled from Wuhan by their left-wing KMT allies, who in turn were toppled by Chiang Kai-shek. At first, the KMT had already captured Wu Han by its left-wing & Nan Jing by its right-wing. And then in 1928, the KMT captured Beijing in June. 1930 The Central Plains War It's an Internal Conflict of KMT. The attention was turned to root out remaining pockets of Communist activity in a series of encirclement campaigns.
It was launched by Feng Yuxiang, Yan Xishan, and Wang Jingwei 1934 Chiang launched another campaign that involved the systematic encirclement of the Jiangxi Soviet region, with fortified blockhouses. This time, the aim of the KMT troops is to surround the Communist areas and cut off their supplies and food source by using blockhouses. Also the Shang Hai Massacre
happened However, in October, the CCP had took the
advantage of the gaps in the ring of the blockhouses
Moreover, The warlord armies were reluctant to challenge Communist forces for fear of wasting their own men, and did not pursue the CCP with much fervor. From Jiang Xi province which began in October, of 1934. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed some 12,500 kilometers (8,000 miles) over 370 days.The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west, then north, to Shaanxi. The Long March The march ended when the CCP reached the interior of Shaanxi. Zhang Guotao's army, which took a different route through northwest China, was largely destroyed by the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and his Chinese Muslim ally, the Ma clique. Along the way, the Communist army confiscated property and weapons from local warlords and landlords, while recruiting peasants and the poor, solidifying its appeal to the masses. Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937-1945) Chiang believed that the KMT was not able to deal with Japan, and neither can the CCP handle it. So he suggested that to put off the disputes between KMT & CCP during Civil War for a while, and be cooperated together to fight with Japanese Invaders. Therefore a rest here. 1946 Despite repeated requests from Chiang, the Soviet Red Army under the command of general Malinovsky,continued to delay pulling out of Manchuria while he secretly told the CCP forces to move in behind them, because Stalin wanted Mao to have firm control of at least the northern part of Manchuria before the complete withdrawal of the Soviets, which led to full-scale war for the control of the Northeast. After the war with the Japanese ended, Chiang Kai-shek quickly moved KMT troops to newly liberated areas to prevent Communist forces from receiving the Japanese surrender.
On 20 July 1946, Chiang Kai-shek launched a large-scale assault on Communist territory with 113 brigades (1.6 million troops). This marked the final phase of the Chinese Civil War. 1945 Negotiation in Chong Qing ...
after the war
with Japan was
over with the
victory of China... For preventing Civil wars and be
best to gain peace, CCP & KMT
had a negotiation in Chong Qing
which lasted 43 days,
from 1945. 8. 29- 10.10 eventually, based on the difference in the
ideology of the system of CCP & KMT,
Mao & Chiang had got many disaggrements
during this period of time, so it ends up with
the broke of the talk. 1947 On March, the KMT achieved a symbolic victory by seizing the CCP capital of Yan'an. On June 30, CCP troops crossed the Huanghe river and moved to Dabie Mountains area, restored and developed the Central Plain. Concurrently, Communist forces in Northeastern China, North China and East China began to counterattack as well. 1948 The CCP eventually captured the northern cities of Shenyang and Changchun and seized control of the Northeast after struggling through numerous set-backs while trying to take the cities, with the decisive Liaoshen Campaign. The New 1st Army, regarded as the best KMT army, had to surrender after the CCP conducted a deadly 6-month siege of Changchun that resulted in more than 150,000 civilian deaths from starvation. By April, the city of Luoyang fell, cutting the KMT army off from Xi'an. Following a fierce battle, the CCP captured Jinan and Shandong province on September 24, 1948. The Huaihai Campaign of late 1948 and early 1949 secured east-central China for the CCP. The outcome of these encounters were decisive for the military outcome of the civil war. 1949
The Pingjin Campaign resulted in the Communist conquest of northern China lasting 64 days from November 21, 1948, to January 31, 1949. The People's Liberation Army suffered heavy casualties from securing Zhangjiakou, Tianjin along with its port and garrison at Dagu and Beiping.The CCP brought 890,000 troops from the Northeast to oppose some 600,000 KMT troops. There were 40,000 CCP casualties at Zhangjiakou alone. They in turn killed, wounded or captured some 520,000 KMT during the campaign.
After the three decisive Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin campaigns, the CCP wiped out 144 regular and 29 non-regular KMT divisions, including 1.54 million veteran KMT troops. This effectively smashed the backbone of the KMT army. On 21 April, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River. On 23 April and they captured the KMT's capital, Nanjing. The KMT government retreated to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15, Chongqing until November 25, and then Chengdu before retreating to Taiwan on December 10. By late 1949, the People's Liberation Army was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet was left. Several last-ditch attempts by the Kuomintang to use Khampa soldiers against the Communists in southwest China were set up. The Kuomintang formulated a plan where 3 Khampa divisions would be assisted by the Panchen Lama to oppose the Communists.
Kuomintang intelligence reported that some Tibetan tusi chiefs and the Khampa Su Yonghe controlled 80,000 troops in Sichuan, Qinghai, and Tibet. They hoped to use them against the Communist army. For conclusion: Eventually the KMT fled to Taipei, and CCP won On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China with its capital at Beiping, which was renamed Beijing. Chiang Kai-shek and approximately 2 million Nationalist Chinese retreated from mainland China to the island of Taiwan. The End