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Valdivia Earthquake (Chile 1960)
Transcript of Valdivia Earthquake (Chile 1960)
- Dan Quayle
May 22, 1960
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Type of Boundary
How was the Environment Affected?
Warning and Recovery
Magnitude of 9.5, recorded on the Richter Scale
The Nazca Plate is subducting beneath the South American Plate
A mega thrust earthquake was caused in the subduction zone
Very large earthquakes where the rocks break along a long section of a fault zone
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.
Frictional stress is created at plate boundaries
When this stress exceeds a critical value, energy is released
The involved tectonic plates were the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate.
Occurred at a convergent oceanic-continental boundary
Formed a subduction zone
The earthquake of May 22, 1960 had an extensive impact on the environment.
Geosphere: shaking, ground rupture, avalanche, landslide
Atmosphere: gas emissions from the ground release toxic chemicals
Biosphere: killed people and animals, ecosystems destroyed
Triggered waves as high as 10.7 meters (35 feet)
Affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, and southeast Australia
Tsunami waves arrive in Japan about a day later
The Greatest Earthquake in History
Recorded earthquakes near the city of Valdivia date all the way back to 1575.
Since then, more than 100 earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 7 have occurred along the west South American plate.
Valdivia Earthquake Strikes Chile
After the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, a committee was formed to solve problems caused by the earthquake.
Worked to develop approaches for national emergencies
In 1974, it was named ONEMI (Spanish acronym for National Emergency and Information Office)
Over $1 billion dollars in repair across the globe
Landslides & Flooding
Earthquake triggered numerous landslides
Mainly in the glacial valleys of the southern Andes
Areas affected were mainly inhabited
Rocks caused flooding after river was dammed
How were Humans Affected?
Chile: 1,655 killed, 3,000 injured, 2,000,000 homeless, destroyed 1 out of every 3 homes, and $550 million damage
Hawaii: tsunami caused 61 deaths, $75 million damage
Japan: 138 deaths and $50 million damage
Philippines: 32 dead and missing
United States: $500,000 damage to the west coast
However, a number of large foreshocks preceded the main earthquake by about 30 minutes
Some lives were saved as many people had evacuated buildings and had taken to the safety of open space.
May 22, 1960 7:11 PM
Also known as The Great Chilean Earthquake
"Being Prepared for an Earthquake." Earthquakes. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. <http:/www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/earthquakes/prepared.asp>.
"Earthquake Quotes." Fancy Quotes. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. <http://www.fancyquotes.com/Earthquake%2520Quotes%25201.html>.
"Historic Earthquakes." Historic Earthquakes. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014. <http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/events/1960_05_22.php>.
"World's Largest Recorded Earthquake." Largest Earthquake Recorded. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. <http://geology.com/records/largest-earthquake/>.
As a result of this earthquake...
More practice drills became required at schools near earthquake zones
More detailed evacuation plans
Establish priorities - safety first
Bedrock & Soil
A stiffer soil called cancagua is the type of soil located in Valdivia
The oldest rocks found in Valdivia were:
oceanic type mafic metavolcanics