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Transcript of Psychological Perspective
* Our behavior and feelings as adults (including psychological problems) are rooted in our >childhood experiences.
* All behavior has a cause (usually unconscious), even slips of the tongue. Therefore all behavior is determined.
* Personality is made up of three parts (i.e. tripartite). The id, ego and super-ego.
* behavior is motivated by two >instinctual drives: Eros (the sex drive & life instinct) and Thanatos (the aggressive drive & death instinct). Both these drives come from the “id”.
* Parts of the unconscious mind (the id and superego) are in constant >conflict with the conscious part of the mind (the ego).
* Personality is shaped as the drives are modified by different conflicts at different times in childhood (during psychosexual development). The "Gist" * Still being used today, widely.
*Can be applied to several cases, and has roots in solid experiments (i.e fixation -Any fixation is an undue amount of attention given something or someone without any basis in reality or rationale. All fixations are of a psychological nature, obviously, for this is the nature of over-extending.) Strengths & Weaknesses *Has been Accused of being "irrefutable" or "Unscientific
*The success of psychoanalytic therapy is not one that is concrete. *Abraham Maslow
The Humanistic Approach *1943 - Abraham Maslow described his hierarchy of needs in 'A Theory of Human Motivation' published in Psychological Review.
*1951- Carl Rogers published Client-Centered Therapy, which described his humanistic, client-directed approach to therapy. Contributions Contributors The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology is that people are innately good and that mental and social problems result from deviations from this natural tendency. What is it? When psychology was first established as a science separate from biology and philosophy, the debate over how to describe and explain the human mind and behavior began. Structuralism He created the first psychology lab; This lab was established in 1879 at the University of Leipzig in Germany. By creating an academic laboratory devoted to the study of experimental psychology, Wundt officially took psychology from a sub-discipline of philosophy and biology to a unique scientific discipline. Wilhelm Wundt Came Along! Structuralism was the first school of psychology and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Researchers tried to understand the basic elements of consciousness using a method known as introspection. What did structuralism encompass? Strengths? *First school of psychology.
*Laid important foundations. * Too subjective
*Internal behavior was unable to be measured or studied Weaknesses? What Came Next?? Functionalism formed as a reaction to the structuralism and was heavily influenced by the work of William James and the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalism!!!!! Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner. Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior. QUE????? *Influenced behaviorism and applied psychology.
*Influenced the educational systeme Strengths & Criticism *Did not account enough for TRUE purpose.
*"It is literature. It is beautiful, but it is not psychology," said Wilhelm Wundt of functionalist William James’ The Principles of Psychology (Fancher, R.E., 1996). 1) Behaviorists assume that we can understand people by observing their behavior. This contrasts with the cognitive approach which looks at thought processes and other unobservable activities. Behaviorism 2) Behavior can be observed in terms of responses to certain stimuli. For example, a person being asked to hold a book (stimulus) would respond by holding the book. 3) Behaviorism also assumes that we are born as a blank slate, or tabula rasa, and so equal at birth. It is environmental factors rather than genetic or biological differences that make us behave differently. Behaviorism very much represents the nurture aspect of the nature-nurture debate. *Skinner's Pigeon experiment, feeding mechanisms
*Pavlov's Dogs experiment Conditioning! This mode of learning was demonstrated by the experiments of Ivan Pavlov, who decided to research conditioning after discovering during separate gastric tests that his dog subjects began to salivate not only when meat powder was presented to them, but more significantly, when the person feeding them came into proximity with them. The Dog Experiment Comprised of beliefs based upon this principle: " Our brain and its psychological components evolved by natural selection to benefit the survival and reproduction our our species". Evolutionary Psychology? For the humanist psychologist, the goal of psychological study isn't so much the total understanding of human behavior, but rather the ability to help people deal with life more successfully. In this sense, it is a highly therapeutic approach, as opposed to a purely theoretical one. *Vision
*Motor control Useful to explain: *Male and female mating preferences and strategies
*Incest Not So Much for: People:
William Paley *Cognitive psychology focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would call stimuli), and how this treatment leads to responses.
*Interested in the variables that mediate between stimulus/input and response/output. Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking. Sociocultural Sociocultural theory is a emerging theory in psychology that looks at the important contributions that society makes to individual development. This theory stresses the interaction between developing people and the culture in which they live. Lev Vygotsky Believed that parents, caregivers, peers and the culture at large were responsible for the development of higher order functions. *Voluntary attention
*Formation of concepts Higher Order Function?? Thank You.