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Energy Systems

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by

Chris Softley

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Energy Systems

Energy Systems
Learning Objectives:
Know the different energy systems
Describe the 3 different energy systems
Explain and Analyse 3 energy systems
Assessment criteria:
P7 - Describe the three different energy systems and their use in sport and exercise activities
M4 - Explain the three different energy systems and their use in sport and exercise activities
D2 - Analyse the three different energy systems and their use in sport and exercise activities
All movement requires energy
Required energy is determined by intensity and duration of the exercise
Sprinters - require large amounts of energy over a short period
Marathon runners - need energy over a long period at a slower rate
Energy systems function aerobically (with oxygen) and anaerobically (without oxygen).
Energy Systems
Energy Systems
How your body breaks down food for energy and transfers the contractile proteins to the working muscles
This determines how long you can exercise for at different durations and intensities
Chemical reactions are responsible for energy transfer
Body maintains a continuous supply of energy through the use of
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
ATP
is often called the energy currency to the body
ATP
Consists of a base (adenine)
Three phosphate groups
Formed by a reaction between Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule and a phosphate
Energy is stored in chemical bonds in the molecules
When a bond is broken, energy is released
When a bond is made, energy is stored
ATP broken down gives energy for muscle contraction
Food
Energy is needed to make muscle fibres contract
Energy is obtained from the oxidation of foods
Carbohydrate:

Broken down into a simple sugar called glucose
Glucose is converted into glycogen if it is not required by your body straight away
Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles
Fat
Broken down to form free fatty acids
ATP can be made in three energy systems:
Creatine phosphate energy system
The lactic acid energy system
The aerobic energy system
Creatine Phosphate energy system:
ATP and Creatine Phosphate make up the ATP-PC system
Creatine phosphate is a high energy compound
Creatine phosphate is broken down to provide energy to make ATP in explosive actions
When the high-energy bond in PCr is broken, the energy it releases is used to resynthesise ATP
PCr supply is limited
Works up to a maximum of 10 seconds
Lactic acid energy system:
Short-term energy system
Meets the energy requirements of higher intensity activities over longer periods of time (400m runner)
ATP can be made by the partial breakdown of glucose and glycogen
Anaerobic process
60-90 seconds of maximal work is possible
Anaerobic Glycolysis
ATP-PCr system begins to fade around 10 seconds
Anaerobic glycolysis begins
This breaks down glycogen stores in the liver and muscles with the presence of oxygen
This produces lactic acid as a by-product
Lactic acid limits energy production via this process
Lactic Acid production
Limiting factor in the anaerobic system
Accumulates and diffuses into the tissue fluid and blood
If not removed by the circulatory system, it impedes muscle contraction and fatigue sets in
Aerobic energy system:
Long-term energy system
If plenty of oxygen is available, glycogen and fatty acids break down to yield large amounts of ATP
Occurs in the mitochondria of the cells
Responsible for converting food into energy
Production of energy is slow because it takes a few minutes for the heart to deliver oxygenated blood to working muscles
Long, continuous exercise produces energy using this energy system
During exercise the body does not switch from one energy system to the other
Energy at anytime is produced from all 3 energy systems
However this depends on the intensity of the exercise relative to the efficiency of your aerobic fitness (your ability to deliver and utilise oxygen).
REMEMBER
Types of sports that use each energy system
Recovery
Exercise causes stress to your body
This depends on the intensity and duration of the activity/exercise
Recovery depends on a number of factors:
Restoration of your immediate energy system
Removal of lactic acid
Restoration of muscle glycogen
The Creatine Phosphate energy system can be restored almost as quickly as energy is released - possible to repeat short bursts of activity
However once lactic acid is produced it will take 45-60 minutes for it to be removed from the system
Rate of muscle glycogen restoration depends on the choice, speed and amount of carbohydrate consumption after exercise (The golden hour)
Full transcript