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China's Middle Period(220-1299)
Transcript of China's Middle Period(220-1299)
• 280 China is briefly reunified under the Chin Dynasty
• 316 North China falls into the hands of non-Chinese invaders and the court moves to the south; the following period is known as the northern and southern dynasties
350-Flourishing of Budhism and translation of Buddhist scriptures
China's Dynasty Wars
Map of China
The Tang Dynasty Poets
• 768-824 Han Yü, poet and prose writer, advocate of "old-style"
• 772-846 Po Chü-i, poet
• 779-831 Yüan Chen, poet and author of the Story of Ying-ying
• 791-817 Li Ho, poet
• 803-852 Tu Mu, poet
• 813-858 Li Shang-yin, poet
• 800 Revival of Confucianism under
589 A northern dynasty, the Sui, reunifies China
618 The T'ang Dynasty supplants the Sui
755 The rebellion of the northeastern armies under their general An Lu-shan drives the emperor from the capital
907 Final collapse of the T'ang into numerous regional kingdoms
960 Founding of the Sung Dynasty and the reunification of China
1127 North China falls to non-Chinese invaders from the northeast; the dynasty is reestablished south of the Yangtse River. This period, lasting until the Mongol conquest, is known as the Southern Sung Dynasty
1279 Mongols conquer south China
China's Middle Period(220-1299)
Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha (meaning "the awakened one")
Traditional illustration and calligraphy of a famous poem (Chinese: 山行 pinyin: Shān Xíng) by poet (Chinese: 杜牧 pinyin: Dù Mù). Tang Dynasty.
Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.
Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.
Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.
Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history
China’s Sung Dynasty
• 981 Completion of the T'ai-p'ing kuang-chi, a vast compendium in which is preserved almost all the prose fiction from the T'ang and earlier dynasties
• 1000-1100 Rise in popularity of song lyrics or tz'u, sung at parties and by courtesans from the Entertainment Quarters • Rapid expansion of commercial and state-supported printing
• 1084-ca. 1151 Li Ch'ing-chao, lyricist and author of Afterword to Records on Metal and Stone
• 1127-1279 Rise of drama and professional storytelling in vernacular Chinese, especially in Hang-chou, the capital of the Southern Sung Dynasty , also Mongols conquer over south China year 1279
• 1299 Marco Polo’s first account visiting China
365-427 A.D T'ao Ch'ien, Poet and Farmer
Tao Qian ( T'ao Ch'ien, 365–427), better known as Tao Yuanming ,was a Chinese poet. Born in modern Jiujiang, Jiangxi, he was one of the most influential pre-Tang Dynasty (618-907) Chinese poets.
400-450 The Flourishing of Landscape Poetry
Poets have long been inspired to tune their lyrics to the variations in landscape, the changes in season, and the natural phenomena around them.
500-550 Development of literary criticism, literary history, and anthology-making in the south china
The imperial examination was a civil service examination system in Imperial China designed to select the best potential candidates to serve as administrative officials, for the purpose of recruiting them for the state's bureaucracy. The tests were designed as objective measures to evaluate the educational attainment and merit of the examinees, as part of the process by which final selections and appointments to office would be made.
699-761 Wang Wei, poet
also known by other names such as Wang Youcheng, was a Tang Dynasty Chinese poet, musician, painter, and statesman. He was one of the most famous men of arts and letters of his time. Many of his poems are preserved, and twenty-nine were included in the highly influential 18th century anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems.
One of Wang Wei's famous poems is "One-hearted" ("Xiang Si"):
When those red beans come in springtime,
Flushing on your southland branches,
Take home an armful, for my sake,
As a symbol of our love.
701-762 Li Po, poet
Li Po, a legendary carouser, was an itinerant poet who is unsurpassed in the scope of his fanciful imagination and who soars to sublime heights in his descriptions of natural scenes and powerful emotions. He has been called 'the immortal of poets'
712-77o Tu Fu poet
Tu Fu is a more popular poet. His experiences of civil war imbue his work with great compassion and earthy reality, shot through with humour and desolation, as he views everyday life with an artist's insight.
I wake and moonbeams play around my bed
Glittering like hoarfroast to my wondering eyes
Upwards the glorious moon I raise my head
Then lay me down and thoughts of home arise
772-846 Po Chu-i, poet
Bai Juyi, was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. Many of his poems concern his career or observations made as a government official, including as governor of three different provinces.
Bai's works were also highly influential in the historical development of Japanese literature.
779-831 Yuan Chen, poet and author of the Story of Ying-ying
was a politician of the middle Tang Dynasty, but is more known as an important Chinese writer and poet. In prose literature, Yuan Zhen is particularly for his work Yingying's Biography , which was often adapted for other treatments, including operatic and musical ones.
Biography of Ying-ying
(Ying-ying zhuan), also known as the Story of Yingying, by Yuan Zhen, is Tang dynasty story that tells the history of a sexual relationship between a 16-year-old girl and a 21-year-old man. The girl hurts and also hurts the man. The man hurts himself and also hurts the girl. Some Chinese critics blame the young man for taking the girl's virginity when it is offered to him but not marrying her.
was a short-lived Chinese poet of the late Tang Dynasty, known for his dense and allusive use of symbolism, for his use of synecdoche, for his vividly imaginative (and often fantastic) imagery, and for his otherwise sometimes unconventional style of poetry. However, these qualities lead to a revival of interest in him and his poetry in the twentieth century.
791-817 Li Ho, poet
803-852 Tu Mu, poet
was a leading Chinese poet of the late Tang Dynasty. His courtesy name was Muzhi , and sobriquet Fanchuan .skilled in shi, fu and ancient Chinese prose. He is best known as the writer of sensual, lyrical quatrains featuring historical sites or romantic situations, and often the themes of separation, decadence, or impermanence. His style blends classical imagery and diction with striking juxtapositions, colloquialisms, or other wordplay. He also wrote long narrative poems, as well as a commentary on the Art of War and many letters of advice to high officials.
813-858 Li Shang-yin, poet
he was much admired and "rediscovered" in the 20th century by the young Chinese writers for the imagist quality of his poems. He is particularly famous for his tantalizing "no title" poems.
From Left To Right - Li Ho , Tu Mu, Li Shang-yin
Rise in popularity of song lyrics or tz'u, sung at parties and by courtesans from the Entertainment Quarters; Rapid expansion of commercial and state-supported printing
1084-1151 Li Ch'ing-chao,
lyricist and author of
Afterword to Records on Metal and Stone
wrote lyrical poetry with such emotional intensity and creativity of voice and meter that she was regarded as China's greatest female poet.
-Record of Bronze and Steel
"When there is possession, there must be loss of possession; when there is a gathering together, there must be a scattering. . . . The reason why I have recorded this story . . . is to let it serve as a warning for scholars and collectors in later generations."
Rise old drama and professional storytelling in Hang-chou, the capital of the Southern Sung Dynasty