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170520 메타인지와 정서처리


Giewook Koo

on 23 May 2018

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Transcript of 170520 메타인지와 정서처리

마음 말하기
남마음 읽기
다시 말하기
마음 자르기
속마음 읽기
Emotional intelligence
(EI) is the capability of individuals to recognize their own, and other people's emotions, to discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and to manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt environments or achieve one's goal(s).

- Andrew Coleman (2008).
Declarative knowledge:
refers to knowledge about oneself as a learner and about what factors can influence one's performance. Declarative knowledge can also be referred to as "world knowledge".

Procedural knowledge:
refers to knowledge about doing things. This type of knowledge is displayed as heuristics and strategies. A high degree of procedural knowledge can allow individuals to perform tasks more automatically. This is achieved through a large variety of strategies that can be accessed more efficiently.

Conditional knowledge:
refers to knowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledge. It allows students to allocate their resources when using strategies. This in turn allows the strategies to become more effective.

- Wikipedia
Metacognition is

"cognition about cognition",
"thinking about thinking",
"knowing about knowing"

and higher order thinking skills. It comes from the root word 'meta', meaning beyond. It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving.
생각에 대한 생각
is any relatively brief conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure.

can be defined as a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity."

- Wikipedia
이 그림을 보면 어떤 생각이 드시나요?
또 어떤 생각을 하게 되었나요?
또 어떤 생각을 했을까요?
아침에 눈을 뜨면 무슨 일을 하나요?
순서대로 나열해 봅시다.

다른 사람들과 비교해 봅니다.
어떤 생각이 드시나요?
경험 - 개념 - 인과 - 신념 - 의지 - 실행
행동 습관 인격 운명
마음 지우기
머리 속에 떠오르는 생각을 하나씩 지웁니다.
무슨 일이 일어났나요.

다른 사람들과 비교해 봅니다.
어떤 생각이 드시나요?
Social exchange theory
posits that human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives.

- Wikipedia
Ivan Nye came up with twelve theoretical propositions that aid in understanding the
social exchange theory

Individuals choose those alternatives from which they expect the most profit.
Cost being equal, they choose alternatives from which they anticipate the greatest rewards.
Rewards being equal, they choose alternatives from which they anticipate the fewest costs.
Immediate outcomes being equal, they choose those alternatives that promise better long- term outcomes.
Long-term outcomes being perceived as equal, they choose alternatives providing better immediate outcomes.
Costs and other rewards being equal, individuals choose the alternatives that supply or can be expected to supply the most social approval (or those that promise the least social disapproval).
Costs and other rewards being equal, individuals choose statuses and relationships that provide the most autonomy.
Other rewards and costs equal, individuals choose alternatives characterized by the least ambiguity in terms of expected future events and outcomes.
Other costs and rewards equal, they choose alternatives that offer the most security for them.
Other rewards and costs equal, they choose to associate with, marry, and form other relationships with those whose values and opinions generally are in agreement with their own and reject or avoid those with whom they chronically disagree.
Other rewards and costs equal, they are more likely to associate with, marry, and form other relationships with their equals, than those above or below them. (Equality here is viewed as the sum of abilities, performances, characteristics, and statuses that determine one's desirability in the social marketplace.)
In industrial societies, other costs and rewards equal, individuals choose alternatives that promise the greatest financial gains for the least financial expenditures.

Equity theory
consists of four propositions:

Individuals seek to maximize their outcomes (where outcomes are defined as rewards minus costs).

Groups can maximize collective rewards by developing accepted systems for equitably apportioning rewards and costs among members. Systems of equity will evolve within groups, and members will attempt to induce other members to accept and adhere to these systems. The only way groups can induce members to equitably behave is by making it more profitable to behave equitably than inequitably. Thus, groups will generally reward members who treat others equitably and generally punish (increase the cost for) members who treat others inequitably.

When individuals find themselves participating in inequitable relationships, they become distressed. The more inequitable the relationship, the more distress individuals feel. According to equity theory, both the person who gets "too much" and the person who gets "too little" feel distressed. The person who gets too much may feel guilt or shame. The person who gets too little may feel angry or humiliated.

Individuals who perceive that they are in an inequitable relationship attempt to eliminate their distress by restoring equity. The greater the inequity, the more distress people feel and the more they try to restore equity. (Walster, Traupmann and Walster, 1978)
이 그림을 보면 어떤 생각이 드시나요?
또 어떤 생각을 하게 되었나요?
또 어떤 생각을 했을까요?

다른 사람과 공유합니다.
무엇을 알게 되었나요?
메타인지와 정서처리
Toddatkins - http://batonrougecounseling.net/managing-emotions/
Robert Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions.
Cognitive appraisal
: provides an evaluation of events and objects.
Bodily symptoms
: the physiological component of emotional experience.
Action tendencies
: a motivational component for the preparation and direction of motor responses.
: facial and vocal expression almost always accompanies an emotional state to communicate reaction and intention of actions.
: the subjective experience of emotional state once it has occurred.
- Scherer, K. R. (2005)
– the ability to know one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and goals and recognize their impact on others while using gut feelings to guide decisions
– involves controlling or redirecting one's disruptive emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.
Social skill
– managing relationships to move people in the desired direction
– considering other people's feelings especially when making decisions
– being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement

- Daniel Goleman (1998)
타인에 대하여 가진 생각을 적어봅니다.
교류를 시도한 것과 시도하지 않은 것은 무엇인가요?
그 이유는 무엇인가요?

무엇이 필요한가요?
어떻게 할까요?
남자 vs. 여자
미투 운동
Frame of Reference
저는 누구입니다.
어제는 이런 일이 있었어요.
오늘 이 교육에 오면서 이런 생각을 했어요.
그림은 보고 든 생각을 나열한다.
1인당 10~20개의 생각을 찾아본다.
두 사람씩 비교하고, 같은 것과 다른 것을 정리한다.
이 과정에서 든 생각을 조별로 말해본다.
다른 사람과 공유합니다.
무엇을 알게 되었나요?
3~4개의 행동을 적는다.
각 행동에 수반되는 3개의 생각을 적는다.
그 생각의 세부내용을 3개를 적는다.
세부내용의 세세부 내용을 3개를 적는다.
1분 동안 마음 지우기를 시도한다.
무슨 일이 일어났는지를 공유한다.
2분 동안 마음 지우기를 시도한다.
무슨 일이 일어났는지를 공유한다.
5분 동안 시도한다.
일어난 일을 개인별로 기록한다
일어난 일을 공유한다.
인지로서 기억, 지식,
정서로서 공정성, I am Great.
생존으로서 취약성
테이블의 다른 사람에 대하여 가진 생각을 적어봅니다.
그 생각에 관하여 교류를 시도한 것과 시도하지 않는 것은 무엇인지 구분하게 한다.
2인1조를 번갈아가며 적은 생각을 기초로 대화한다.
인지로서 기억, 지식,
정서로서 공정성, I am Great.
생존으로서 취약성
에 관한 참여자 또는 구성원의 숨은 생각을 알아야 좋은 질문이 가능하다.

3~4인 조로 나누어 조별 20개의 가정을 적는다.
그 중 신념에 해당하는 것을 분리한다.
그 중 지식에 해당하는 것을 분리한다.
그 중 진리에 해당하는 것을 분리한다.
조별로 돌면서 설명을 듣는다. 토론한다.

이 구분의 프레임이 있어야 퍼실리테이터가 좋은 질문을 할 수 있다.

브레네 브라운의 강연 내용의 소감 나누기
자신의 마음 속을 알 때, 다른 사람들의 마음 속을 알 수 있다.
브레네의 강연은 자신의 마음을 들여다 보기 좋은 지식을 제공한다.
남자가 여자에게
여자가 남자에서
서로 적어두고 교차하여 이야기 한다.
처음 시도와 달라진 점을 공유한다.
미투에 관하여
2인1조, 2회
어떤 메타인지를 하였나요?
어떤 메타인지를 하였나요?

메타인지에 대한 개념을 알고,
생각을 잘게 잘라 볼 줄 알고,
생각을 나누어 볼 수 있는 다양한 프레임을 알고,
생각에는 지식/믿음/지각/연결 등이 자리잡고 있음을 알고,
인지와 정서의 차이를 알고,
감성지능을 알면,
메타인지를 통하여 자신의 행동을 보다 전략적으로 선택할 수 있다.
인지와 정서는 동시에 일어나는 것이어서
둘 다 알고 있어야 유용한 결과를 낼 수 있다.

메타인지와 정서처리 모두 전략적 개입의 돕는다.
Every communication has a content and relationship aspect such that the latter classifies the former and is therefore a metacommunication: All communication includes, apart from the plain meaning of words, more information. This information is based on how the speaker wants to be understood and how he himself sees his relation to the receiver of information. Relationship is the command part of the message or how it is non-verbally said. Content is the report or what is said verbally. Being able to interpret both of these aspects is essential in understanding something that a communicator said. The relational aspect of interaction is known as metacommunication. Metacommunication is communication about communication. Relationship messages are always the most important element in communication.
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