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The Siege of Masada

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Ryan O'Hare

on 20 November 2014

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Transcript of The Siege of Masada

The Siege of Masada
By Ryan O'Hare
Background
The Roman Response
Fall of Jerusalem
Sack of the Second Temple
Pacification of Iudaea
Josephus
Jewish priest
Captured by Romans
Only know detailed account
Credible source?
The Jewish Defenders
Roughly 960 people
Many women and children
After fall of Jerusalem, more Sicarii came to Masada
The Roman Army
Legio X Fretensis
roughly 15,000 troops
Conclusions
Masada was besieged by Romans
Unknown number of Jews present
Outcome?
Josephus' motive for fabrication?
The Siege
Josephus Account
Archeological Evidence
The First Jewish Revolt
Masada the Fortress
The Roman Response
First Jewish Revolt
Reasons for revolt
Religious tension
Anti-tax protests
Masada the Fortress
Herod the Great
Sicarii Rebels
Josephus' Account
Archaeological Evidence
The Battle
Jews were besieged at Masada
roughly 13,000 Romans
wall of circumvallation, siege ramp, balistae stones etc.
Skeletons
What was found
What was not
No evidence to support mass suicide
No reliable way to determine number of Jewish defenders at Masada
Wall of circumvallation
Siege ramp
"Citadel of Death"
Mass suicide of all but 7 defenders
Bibliography
Smallwood, E. M. 1976. The Jews under Roman rule : from Pompey to Diocletian. Leiden, Netherlands.

Stern, M. 1974. Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism. Jerusalem.

Goodman, M. 1999. Jews in a Graeco-Roman World. Oxford.

Grant, M. 1973. The Jews in the Roman World. New York.

Berlin, A. M. and J. A. Overmann. 2002. The First Jewish Revolt: Archaeology, History and Ideology. London and New York.

Popovic, M. 2011. The Jewish Revolt Against Rome: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Leiden and Boston.

Klassen, W. 2000. "The Archaeological Artifacts of Masada and the Credibility of Josephus." In V. Studies in Christianity and Judaism, Text and Artifact in the Religions of Mediterranean Antiquity. Ontario, 456-473.

Ben-Yahuda, N. 1995. Masada Myth: Collective Memory and Mythmaking in Israel. Madison, WI, and London.

Campbell, Duncan B. 2005. Siege Warfare in the Roman World, 146 BC-AD 378. Oxford.

Atkinson, K. 2007. "Noble deaths at Gamla and Masada? : a Critical Assessment of Josephus' Accounts of Jewish Resistance in Light of Archaeological Discoveries." In I. Brill (ed.), Making History: Josephus And Historical Method. Leiden, 349-371.
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