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Transcript of Feminism
1990's- 2010's Researched by Kira Watson Team Members: Kira Watson, Lucy Wings, Sheree Billen, Diana Brennan & Jeanette Schwarze Assignment 2A: Producing an Informal Resource Feminism Researched by Jeanette Schwarze Popular Feminists:
Lucretia Mott (1793-1880) and Elizabeth Stanton (1815-1902) organised the first womens rights convention at Seneca Falls in New York,1848. Elizabeth Stanton created the Declaration of Sentiments, which outlined the need for gender equality (Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 2013).
Throughout history women were confined to the domestic sphere while men reserved their right in public life (Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 2013).
The "Declaration of Sentiments" was created in 1848 which laid the foundation that helped women win the right to vote in 1920 (About.com).
Government/ Political Views:
1870 - The Married Women's Property Act was developed allowing women to keep their property, married, divorced, single or widowed (Manchester Metropolitan University, 2008). Popular Feminists:
Lesley Abdula: Co-founded the 300 Group for Women in Politics in the UK; awarded MBE for championing professional women (Manchester Metropolitan University, 2008).
Susan Faludi: Writer of "Backlash - the undeclared war against American women" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013).
Madonna: The first female megastar (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013).
Feminist "Sex Wars" over sexuality, pornography, prostitution, rape, domestic violence,reproduction and abortion.Equal rights sought in employment and education. Income gap and negative stereotypes against career women persisted. Women still carried the burden of both home and work (University of Michigan).
Anti-nuclear missile protests at Greenham Common, UK. Defeat of US Equal Rights Amendment (1982).UK women may hold bank loan in their own name (Napikoski, 2013).
UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher did little to help the feminist cause. USA President Reagan caused a backlash against the progressive changes of the 1970's by backing a Human Life Amendment, and slashing the budget of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission; however he appointed the first woman to the Supreme Court - Sandra Day O'Connor (Kelly, 2012). The advocacy of Women's Rights - a collection of movements aimed at establishing equal political, social and economic rights for women. Where did it all start and how far have we come? Modern women in the developed world have gained enormously compared to previous generations, but women in developing countries lag far behind. We present a selected timeline of it's progress to date: Introduction Popular Feminists:
Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643): Organised weekly meetings of women and discussed her own theological views (Encylopaedia Britannica Incorporated, 2013).
Christine De Pisan (1364-1430) : A french poet/author whose works championed women (Encylopaedia Britannica Incorporated, 2013).
During this period women were limited to domestic duties whilst men enjoyed the public arena. Once suffrage had been achieved, the feminist movement virtually collapsed around the world. The movement lacked beliefs other than being able to achieve the right to vote for women. As a result more than a dozen splinter groups were formed (Encylopaedia Britannica Incorporated, 2013).
In the 1800's women had to fight hard to gain equal rights. Women started to realise that to gain rights they must start their own organisations. Based on this the womens movement evolved (EServer, 2005).
During this period the view was that women could not vote, own property, study or be involved in public life (Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 2013). Researched by: Lucy Wings Popular Feminists:
Gloria Steinem: advocate
Eleanor Roosevelt: Kennedy's Commission on the Status of Women.
Betty Friedan: established National Organisation for Women (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013).
Women's right movements were demanding equal pay, access to childcare and contraception. Other influencial issues included the Vietnam war and a general feeling of discrimination of minority groups (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013).
Direct action protests such as bra burning, beauty pageant protests and womens union movements were given widespread media coverage.
In the U.K. in 1967 the contraceptive pill was available, along with the Abortion Act being legislated (Manchester Metropolitan University, 2008).
Government/ Political Views:
J.F Kennedy established the historical Civil Rights Act of 1964.The women's rights movement took hold with groups such as the N.O.W launching campaigns (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013). Feminism In the 80's Popular Feminists:
Rebecca Walker: Editor/Author of her book: ‘To Be Real’ in 1994. She also published an article in 1991 Ms. Magazine ‘Becoming the Third Wave’ (1991), where she stated, "I am not a post-feminism feminist. I am the third-wave” (Rebecca Walker, 2013).Jennifer Baumgardner and Amy Richards: Co-Authors of the books: ManifestA: ‘Young Women, Feminism and the Future’ (2000) (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013).Hillary Rodham Clinton: The US First Lady (1992) (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013).
In the early 1990's (third wave feminism), the controversial debates consisted of anti racism, violence against women and women of colour. Over the years, free expression issues like stereo types and the negative definitions of women were addressed. This empowered women to the 21st century where they can express themselves freely (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013).
In 1994 the "Gender Equity in Education Act"became law in the U.S. This banned sex-role stereotyping and gender discrimination in education.The “Violence Against Women Act” became law(1994). This created awareness that people will be prosecuted for abusing women. In 2006 the “Gender Equality Duty of the Equality Act” promoted equality for genders and overall (Lewis, 2013).
In 1994 the “Violence Against Women Act” became law after many cases of abusement towards women occured. In 1997 the general election had the most labour women MP’s elected (101). In 2001 the Mayer of London announced that all same sex partners could register their relationship (Manchester Metropolitan University, 2008). It is the consensus of this group that a woman's place in society has come a long way.The establishment of the Declaration of Sentiments allowing women to vote has evolved to current times where women can hold seats in parliament.
Feminist pioneers back in the 19th century paved the way for women today. Throughout history, women's rights have been reported by the media increasing awareness and empowering women.
The gap between men and women's rights narrowed, but it wasn't until more recent times that gender equality became law, enforcing organisations and society to promote and embrace equality.
From Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucritia Mott to Madonna to Germain Greer to Hillary Clinton, feminists through history have certainly advanced the rights of women. The achievements of these women is an inspiration to us all to continue to fight for women's rights and hopefully get results for the parts of the world that are still treating women as second rate to men. Resources/ References The credibility of our resources was assessed using the following criteria:
2. Credibility of the author/s
3. Date of article
4. Ability to cross reference with other research
5. Is it based on fact or opinion. About.com. (n.d.). Education: Women's History. Retrieved May 2013, from About.com: http://womenshistory.about.com/od/suffrage1900/a/august_26_wed.htm
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2013). Christine de Pisan. Retrieved May 2013, from Encyclopaedia Britanica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/115672/Christine-de-Pisan
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2013). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved May 2013, from Feminism: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2013). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved May 2013, from Susan Faludi: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/201128/Susan-Faludi
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2013). Feminism: The Postsuffrage Era. Retrieved May 2013, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism/216009/The-postsuffrage-era
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2013). Feminism: The Suffrage Movement. Retrieved May 2013, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism/216007/The-suffrage-movement
Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated. (2013). 300 Women Who Changed The World. Retrieved May 10, 2013, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Profiles: https://www.britannica.com/women
Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated. (2013). Anne Hutchinson. Retrieved May 2, 2013, from 300 Women Who Changed The World: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/277653/Anne-Hutchinson
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2013). Madonna. Retrieved May 2013, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/355916/Madonna
EServer. (2005, November 2). Feminism and Women's Studies. Retrieved May 2013, from The Women's Movement - Our History: http://feminism.eserver.org/theory/feminist/Womens-Movement.html
Kelly, M. (2013). About.com: American History. Retrieved May 3013, from About.com: http://americanhistory.about.com/od/ronaldreagan/a/ff_r_reagan.htm
Lewis, J. J. (2013). About.com. Retrieved May 3013, from Women's History: http://womenshistory.about.com
Manchester Metropolitan University. (2008). The Women's Timeline. Retrieved May 2013, from MMU: http://www.mmu.ac.uk/humanresources/equalities/doc/gender-equality-timeline.pdf
Napikoski, Linda (2013). What Is the Backlash Against Feminism?. Retrieved 11 May 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/feminism/a/backlash_and_feminism.htm
NYC, F. A. (2013, March 4). Women's Liberation. Retrieved May 3, 2013, from YouTube:
Rebecca Walker. (2013). To Be Real. Retrieved may 2013, from Rebecca Walker: http://www.rebeccawalker.com/work/to-be-real
University of Michigan. (n.d.). University of Michigan. Retrieved May 2013, from Lesbian History: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/lesbian.history/the_sex_wars