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Latin American Independence Movements
Transcript of Latin American Independence Movements
L.A. populations not much experience in participatory government Colonial Legacy & Context:
Created dependence on central authority structures & on industrialized nations Colonial Legacy & Context:
Hierarchical class structure adopted from colonial nations = creoles & indigenous populations not politically unified Colonial Legacy & Context: Revolution is in the air!
Latin American leaders moved by liberal ideas of American & French revolutions = Haitian Slave Revolt led by Toussaint L'Overture (1791) Mexican Independence --Revolution against Spain (1821)
--Established a monarchy (a Creole officer) Venezuelan Independence --Simon Bolivar (wealthy Creole) leads revolution against Spain
--Bolivar unites surrounding countries (Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela) under the title "Gran Columbia" Brazilian Independence? --Napoleonic Invasions disrupted Portugal
--Portugal Monarchy relocates to Brazil for a brief time
--1820: Monarch returned to Portugal
--1822: Prince of Monarch (Dom Pedro I) declares independence from Portugal, but social structure remained the same (slavery) Social Inequalities Color distinctions did not disappear
Slavery abolished everywhere by 1850, except Brazil
Indian populations are still under forced labor & tributes in order to raise revenue Creole's lack of trust in the popular classes
Vote extended to only property holders and literate Geo-Political Fragmentation Attempts at union failed largely because of geographic barriers & great distances
Roads were poor
Spanish America became 18 separate nations Differing Political Philosophies Centralists Federalists --Strong, nationalist, central governments with broad powers... Leads to... Conservativism --Belief in institutions (church & government)
--Skeptical of individualism & secularism --Decentralized government
--Layers of local governments that have autonomy to make laws Leads to... Liberalism! --Belief in limited government
--Separation of Church & State
--Rights of individuals over institutions = Haitian Revolution Toussaint L'Overture Priest Miguel Hidalgo South America
1776 Simon Bolivar South America
1830 Simon Bolivar Led the Gran Columbia! Economic Trends STILL ECONOMICALLY DEPENDENT
Still Economically Dependent on European manufactures
British goods flooded Latin American markets Hello! STILL ECONOMICALLY DEPENDENT
1. STAGNATION: Poor Infrastructure, ports, and lack of capital for investments British Exports eCONOMIC RESURGENCE! cAUSED BY... lIBERAL IDEAS OF
AN OPEN MARKET
LIMITED GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION = Export Economy
Led by europe's high demand for wheat, sugar, coffee, bananas, tobacco, beef, wool, rubber, copper = = Constitutions attracted foreign investments = appearance of stability Nation-building case study: mexico!! "La Reforma" Santa anna resigns in 1855 New generation of lawyers, intellectuals, middle class liberals work to revive Mexico -- write a new constitution (1857) Benito juarez Rise of Caudillos in latin america
pOPUlist, Autocratic leaders Santa anna -- mexico Liberal Vison of society:
eliminate old privileges of church
Rule of law
create a nation of small independent farmers "la reforma" curtailed by
french sphere of influence
mexican conservatives Juarez forces vs. french military Juarez wins -- ousts french & establishes an autocratic rule,
centralized government to bring about
stability again. General Porfirio Diaz elected President in 1876 strong central government launched development plan for mexico:
encouraged foreign investments = lands went to foreign nationals
grew railroad system however, Some did not enjoy all the progress 1910 = mexican revolution
(10 year civil war)
liberals + socialists Zapatistas "Tierra y libertad!" Pancho villa led Guerilla attacks --
bandits or independence leaders? Emiliano Zapata New constitution is written (1917) Diaz is overthrown...