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Stand by: The Power of the Bystander
Transcript of Stand by: The Power of the Bystander
Steps 1: Attention
Step 2: Interpretation
Victim-perpetrator Relationship effects
Step 3: Taking Responsibility
More People --> Diffusion of Responsibility
Social (Responsibility) Norms
Step 4: Decide how to help
Lack of competence
Lack of scripts
Step 5: Provide Help
Risks and Costs vs. Benefits
Lack of proximity
So who wants to be a superhero?
Or a Good Samaritan?
Counter with drawing attention
Check in with your surroundings
Counter with reducing ambiguity, declaring an emergency
Use relationship replacement: Recognize that even if it's personal, it still isn't right.
Make personal contact by identifying a helper from the group
Also increases public self-awareness
Once one person steps forward, others follow
Especially if other bystanders are similar (where more people increases the likelihood of helping in high-risk emergencies)
Use social contracts: Elicit agreements beforehand - designate responsibility
Develop extensivity: Consider everyone an ingroup member
Remind people of what they CAN do
Increase accessibility of social scripts
Process consequences of inaction
Would you help?
And just by learning this you are 20-40% more likely to help (Beaman et al., 1978)
So put it together...
Why did these people help?
Is it Apathy?
Are they bad people? Immoral? Where's the empathy now?
Is it the individual or the situation?
Be more than a bystander
Seminary students assigned to give a speech on being a Good Samaritan (or about jobs in the seminary), get a call mid-preparation:
"...It'll be a few minutes before they're ready for you, but you might as well head on over..."
"The assistant is ready for you, so please go right over."
"Oh, you're late. They were expecting you a few minutes ago. We'd better get moving..."
You're late for a very important date
"In a fixed effects model, data from over 7,700 participants and 105 independent effect sizes revealed an overall effect size of g = –0.35. The bystander effect was attenuated when situations were perceived as dangerous (compared with non-dangerous), perpetrators were present (compared with non-present), and the costs of intervention were physical (compared with non-physical). This pattern of findings is consistent with the arousal-cost-reward model, which proposes
that dangerous emergencies are recognized faster and more clearly as real emergencies, thereby inducing higher levels of arousal and hence more helping
." (Fischer et al., 2011, pg. 517)
The role of dangerousness
The Higher the Risk....
Research on Bystander Intervention training suggests effectiveness (e.g., Rape prevention: Coker et al., 2011, Katz, et al., 2013; Bullying prevention: Polanin et al., 2012)