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Copy of Oedipus The King: A True Tragic Hero
Transcript of Copy of Oedipus The King: A True Tragic Hero
Oedipus the King
Aristotle 's Essential Elements of a 'Tragic Hero"
How does King Oedipus
fit these essential elements of a tragic hero???
Let's find out
1. The hero has a character of noble stature and has greatness - must occupy a "high" status position but also embody nobility and virtue as part of his innate character.
2. The hero is pre-eminently great but not perfect - people see in him someone who is essentially like them, although elevated to a higher position in society.
3. The hero's downfall is partially his own fault, the result of free choice, not of accident or some malignant fate - the tragedy is usually triggered by the character's hamartia, an error in judgement that contributes to the hero's lack of perfection.
4. The hero's misfortune is not wholly deserved - punishment exceeds crime
5. The hero's fall is not pure loss - he gains in self-knowledge, or discovers something
6. The hero must evoke in the audience a sense of pity or fear.
Oedipus has many excellent qualities
which are readily evident in the play
He is caring and compassionate
He calls the people of Thebes, "Oh my children" (1)
He is confident, powerful and strong
He pronounces himself, "Here I am myself -/ you all know me, -the world knows my fame:/ I am Oedipus." (7-9)
He is trustworthy -
"You can trust me. I am ready to help" (13)
He is highly-praised, revered and well-liked
People say to him "we do rate you first of men"(41) , "you lifted up our lives" (49)
He is a man of action
When the citizens grieve to him about the plague, he has already sent "Creon,/[his] wife's own brother to Delphi" (81) for advice
He is a man of high standing socially (King of Thebes), intellectually (he is the great solver of riddles) and morally (he is determined to find the murderer and end the plague on his people).
Oedipus is still a mortal and is therefore imperfect, possessing flaws
He is over-confident and displays hubris, daring to compare himself to the Gods
"You pray to the gods? Let me grant your prayers" (245)
He is short-tempered, impulsive and tends to jump to conclusions
He becomes enraged when Tiresias refuses to share the truth and calls him "scum of the earth" (245). He irrationally accuses not only Tiresias but also Creon, his brother in law.
Oedipus's error in judgement or his tragic flaw
led him to his own demise
Hamartia definition: the tragic flaw or mistake that eventually leads to his downfall
Oedipus's tragic flaw is his hot-temper, his impulsive behaviour and his excessive pride/hubris
His hot-temper makes him too fervent to know the truth from Tiresias, the truth that is best left uncovered
Because he is excessively proud and displays hubris as king, he believes that he must know the truth and refuses to let Tiresias go without telling him the truth.
He also makes the mistake of leaving his adopted parents after hearing the prophecy -- having just been told that he will kill his father and marry his mother, and uncertain who his real parents are, Oedipus impulsively kills an older man, and marries an older woman.
Oedipus does not deserve his tragic misfortune as
he unknowingly took actions by mistake, unaware of the truth
His crime was not out of wickedness; it was due to his ignorance about his self-identity. He did not know that King Laius was his father and Jocasta was his mother.
When Tiresias talks to Oedipus about his family history, he doubts who his father is: "Parents-who? Wait...who is my father?" (498)
Therefore, he does not deserve such tragic ending
Oedipus gains knowledge about his self-identity
Oedipus discovers the real truth about his identity, which is a gain opposed to his tragic fall.
He finally realizes who he is - he finds out that the man he has killed in the woods is King Laius, his own father, and the woman he is married to is the very same woman that gave him birth.
The Paradox: Now that he is blind he sees
At the end of the play, he declares "I am Oedipus!" (1495) after discovering the true identity of himself. He proclaims his name humbly and in shame, unlike the beginning when he shouted his name with pride and confidence.
Oedipus causes feelings of pity and fear in the audience as the plot unravels
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
copy paste branches if you need more....
Aristotle's Definition of a Tragic Hero
"A virtuous man whose misfortune is brought about not by depravity, but by some error or frailty"
The error or the mistake usually is Hamartia, the tragic flaw that eventually leads to his downfall
Aristotle says that the tragedy arouses emotions of pity/fear and through the catharsis that comes from watching the tragic hero's terrible fate, the audience is cleansed of those emotions
The audience winces in pity at Oedipus for being so blind to the truth.
The audience pities and shudders in horror and fear as Oedipus stabs his eyes out at discovering the terrible truth.
"And at each stroke blood spurts from the roots,/ splashing his beard, a swirl of it, nerves and clots-/ black hail of blood pulsing, gushing down" (1411-1413)
Dramatic Irony: the audience knows the truth while Oedipus doesn't
Therefore, Oedipus is truly a tragic hero.
One can argue about what Oedipus's Hamartia really was.
What do you think was Oedipus's true Hamartia?
Out of the 6 essential elements of Aristotle's definition of a tragic hero, which one do you think best fits Oedipus? Why?
Exactly when did Oedipus experience an anagnorisis, or a moment in the play when he makes a critical discovery?
Which part of the play caused you the strongest feelings of pity and/or fear for the tragic hero?
Is his misfortune completely due to his own actions or do you believe in fate playing a role?
Does Oedipus possess some qualities that you do not think fit the definition of a tragic hero?
The hero is neither a villain nor a model of perfection but is good and decent
"Aristotle." Home Page English 112 VCCS
Litonline. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012.
"Aristotle's Tragic Terms." Welcome to Ohio
University. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012.
Banks, Theodore Howard. Three Theban plays:
Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus..
New York: Oxford University Press, 1956. Print.
"What is Aristotle's definition of a tragic hero? - Yahoo! Answers."
Yahoo! Answers - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. Yahoo! Answers -
Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012.
This should be evident in the play