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Next Generation Sequencing and Forensics...

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Lisa Hurst

on 12 April 2017

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Transcript of Next Generation Sequencing and Forensics...

Lisa Hurst



lhurst@gth-gov.com
202-251-8978

NGS and Rape Kit Backlog Reduction: Legislative / Policy Considerations

Policy Considerations for NGS in Forensic Labs
Adoption of NGS Into Workflow: Conclusions
1. Forensic Science must not lose public trust.

2. Regulatory framework needed to clarify what is allowable.

3. Labs should develop written policies regarding NGS use:
What types of cases?
What types of data / SNPs?
*Do not take more than you need
*Smaller, targeted panels are best
How and with whom will it be shared?
Use must be FORENSICALLY RELEVANT AND RESPONSIBLE
BUT...
Accpetance of forensic DNA programs has been predicated on use of non-coding loci
YES.
NGS:
Improving Results
Many labs reporting a 40% - 60% success rate in obtaining CODIS eligible profiles from rape kits

How can we increase these rates?
Improved SANE training helps, but problems persist:

Very minute samples
Degraded samples
Mixtures

What about "appearance" SNPs?
Clear potential value for investigative leads
How and to whom are leads communicated?
Appearances can be altered / change
Similarities still exist

Race may be a private issue
Particularly for innocent suspects
Next Generation Sequencing and Forensics...
NGS Standards and Procedures
Moving Forward
Assumptions:
CE will continue to be the "go to" for the majority of casework

NGS is a valuable solution for:
Difficult samples
Phenotype-based investigative leads
NGS changes this...
KEY TO SUCCESS: Use must be forensically relevant and forensically responsible. Do not lose public trust.
Not invasive to privacy
Not ripe for allegations of abuse

NDIS Board Steps
Notify Congress of changes to loci
Publish new regulations in Fed Reg
Initiate NDIS approval process

NEXT UP: Interpretation Guidelines
FINAL SWGDM STEP: Recommend revisions to NDIS Operational Procedures Manual (if needed)

SWGDM NGS guidelines should clear the way for convictions in court (with likely admissibility challenges)

BUT
NDIS approval not needed if case does not need to be searched on database
SWGDM and/or NDIS approval does NOT preclude NGS use TODAY for investigative leads

CONCLUSION:
Should SNPs for disease prediction be considered?

Potentially helpful to certain investigations, but too much of a privacy intrusion?
New Hampshire HB 1484 (2014)
ENACTED
Prohibits whole genome sequencing for genetic newborn screening purposes.

Reserves right for Legislature to debate and determine privacy impacts before whole genome clinical testing is used.

Will Defense Bar demand access?
Is all of this worth it??
FBI Presentation, 2012
US Update
Rape Kit Reform
Miami installed the first bank automated teller machine especially for rollerbladers
PRESENT FACTS
Policy
Funding
Justice For All Act S.2577 / HR 4602
Requires 75% allotment for DNA testing and capacity
Adds specific performance metrics for DNA grants
Reauthorizes Coverdell Grants (increase formula portion)
Reauthorizes Kirk Bloodworth post conviction grant
Sexual Assault Survivors Rights Act S. 2566
(Amended in into Adam Walsh Reauth S. 2613)
Includes right to "be informed of any result of a sexual assault evidence collection kit, including a DNA profile match, toxicology report, or other information collected as part of a medical forensic examination"
Debbie Smith Grants
(CEBR)
SAKI Grants
SAFE-ITR Grants
NEW:
DNA Efficiency Improvement and Capacity Enhancement
FY 2017 Solicitation closes March 13
Earlier solicitation will NOT mean earlier release of funds

Same funding available as FY 2016
Project-Based
Sexual Assault Forensic Evidence -- Inventory, Tracking, Reporting

Coming Soon!

Only 4 awards last year..

Applications due March 2

Funding for "owed" samples -- 2nd time grantees, or applicants who can show they have addressed SAK backlogs ONLY
Memphis Civil Lawsuit
Victims' civil rights violated over failure to test rape kit.

Tennessee Governmental Tort Liabilities Act

Alleges the city and county “had prior notice of the reckless, willful and wanton actions of their employees and agents, but took no steps to train them, correct abuses of authority or discourage the irresponsible use of authority.”
Governmental Sovereign Immunity
Rape Kit Laws
REPORT:
Statewide Audits : 25 states

REFORM:
Submission Timelines:
18 States

Analysis Timelines:
11 States

Victim Notification:
13 States

Periodic Reports:
9 States

Rape Kit Tracking:
3 states
Idaho Sheriff: Rape Kit System ‘Unnecessary’ Because Most Accusations are False
Sheriff NAME
QUOTE
Ohio vs. Demetrius Jones
1993 & 1994 SAK collected
CHR includes more than 30 felonies
4/15/2011 -- arrestee DNA sample
9/11/2011 - SAK submitted
8/1/2012 - Report issued on match
State Appeals Court:
20 year delay in prosecution resulted in prejudice
CASE DISMISSED

Appealed to State Supreme Court
STATUS: REVERSED
AB 1744
-- Statewide standardized rape kit
Rape Kit Reform
AB 1848
- Mandates participation in SAFE-T
AB 2499
- CA DOJ must establish a process to allow victims to inquire about status
SB 1079
-- Mandates participation in CHOPS
VS
SB 2221
Requires hit notification to prosecutor
Annual report of kits in law enforcement custody.
SB 3096
New training requirements for SA responders
Storage of unreported kits
Written consent requirements
Annual report on number of trained forensic scientists
VICTIM NOTIFICATION RIGHTS

Right to be informed of status / location
Right to be notified if no testing
Right to be notified of results / no results
Right to be notified of match

Rapid DNA Act
SAFER II (?)
2017
FOLLOW US ON TWITTER
@Tim_DNAResource
HIT OF THE YEAR AWARD
A true "cold" hit
Match within it the last 24 months
Arrest for a crime with community-wide attention, or other unique circumstances
May 16-17 -- Vienna, Austria
Travel support provided for winning case (1 person)
REPORT
REFORM
And Other DNA Stuff...
PASS OR DID NOT PASS?
AB 390
- Adds offenses removed by Prop 47
White House
Public Safety Positions?

Pro-Law Enforcement
Budget may elimnate COPS and VAWA offices

Sen. Sessions as AG
Author of Coverdell Forensic Science Improvement Act
Cosponsor of Rapid DNA bill
Testimony from Jayann Sepich
2016
Applications due March 13
Up to 750,000 per award - 4.8 milion total
36 month award period
Full transcript