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Copy of Copy of Trait and Factor Theory

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Elan Santiago

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Trait and Factor Theory

Trait and Factor Theory 1909 Parsons Describes his concept of Vocational Guidance Foreperson in charge of shipping for a small manufacturing company History Trait & Factor Case Study: Phil Consists of 3 necessities 1. Clear understanding of yourself, aptitudes, abilities, interests, resources, limitations, and other qualities 2. Knowledge of requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensation, opportunities, and prospects in different lines of work 3. True reasoning on the relations of these two groups of facts Other Contributions *At the same time Elton Mayo and Frederick Taylor developing ways to study how an individual reacts to his or her work environment. During World War II work was done on assessing the abilities of personnel culminating in the Army General Classification Test After WWII work continued in the area of Assessment at the University of Minnesota Main Contributor Edmund G. Williamson, approach was concerned with the whole person but was considered very directive The assessment of characteristics of the person and the job 3 Step Recipe Step 1: Gaining Self Understanding Client interviews and assessments are used to gain a better understanding of the client in five trait areas: Aptitudes Achievements Interests Values Personality Step 2: Obtaining knowledge about the world of work General Values Values MMPI- Minnesota Multiphasic Personal Inventory Personality 3 Flavors Achievements 3 inventory examples Interests Aptitudes Reveals a person’s probable future level of ability to perform a task Examples of Aptitude Tests Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) U.S Department of Labor O*NET Ability Profiler (AP) The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) College Board Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) American College Testing Assessment Program: Academic Test (ACT) Academic accomplishments Accomplishments in work Tests of achievement for certification Grades and Honors Completed tasks and Supervisor evaluations Occupational Licensure/ Certification It is more accurate than aptitude and a better judge of predicting occupation for those clients with a wide range of ability Kuder DD Strong Interest Inventory (SII) California Occupational Preference Survey (COPS) "I honestly think it is better to be a failure at something you love than to be a success at something you hate." George Burns Work Related Values An important trait but it has often been neglected because: Values are elusive, making it hard to develop reliable and valid inventories Cultural values must be taken into consideration **Inventory examples: Study of Values (SV) and Value Scale (VS) Ability to match the profile of a client with an occupational pattern Inventory Examples: Inventories such as these are difficult to learn how to use May contain a cultural bias Involves the gathering of occupational information through the use a various resources 3 Components Occupational Information Classification Systems Trait and Factor Requirements 3 Classification Systems Booklets Gathering of general information about the clients occupation interests Consideration must given to schooling, work environment, and salary when matching a client to an occupation. Trait & Factor Requirements Used to categorize occupations Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) O*NET Dictionary of Occupational Titles http://www.onetonline.org/ Standard Occupational Classification Manual (SOC) http://www.bls.gov/soc/ Information about an occupation can be related to a client’s traits. Having knowledge of his or her aptitudes, achievements, interests, values, and personality can aide in determining if the occupations criteria fit. Pamphlets Websites Occupational Outlook Handbook http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ Step 3: Integrating Information About One’s Self and The World of Work Step 3 is the major goal in Trait and Factor Theory Matching traits and occupations is part of the first two steps Shake Thoroughly If it were only that simple... Counselors must be aware of many criticisms involved with Trait and Factor Theory It is simplistic, directive, and heavy emphasis is placed on assessment Conflicting results from Trait Inventories Gender and cultural bias in society and assessments can affect trait results * Women are underrepresented in fields of science and mathematics * Occupational Title Bias (Mailman vs. Mail Carrier) Assumes occupational information and choice is available to everyone We have the technology… Computer Guidance Systems SIGI 3 and DISCOVER are interactive systems that can be used to provide measurements of interests, values, and self-reported competencies http://www.sigi3.org http://www.act.org/discover/internet/index.html Move from "Trait and Factor" to Person x Environment fit People seek congruent environments The process is not static, it is ongoing More client involvement and more of a supportive teaching style 48 Year Old Caucasian Attended some college Age/Gender/ Race: Education: Occupation: Assessment Career Counseling Plan Initial Assessment His promotion and test scores show that his abilities would give him a wide selection of occupations. He is in his second marriage with 3 children and one more on the way His interests include fixing things, cars, chess and bridge club, Science and Scientific American Magazines, Model Trains, and the Railroad. Aptitudes Personality Interests Values He places high value on security (such as the union,) Compensation (such as company benefits.) Prefers a work environment with minimal stress. Achievements He did not want to "climb the corporate ladder." Family His father and grandfather had been railroad executives, his brother is a civil engineer School Not averse to going back but does not know what he would study Vague on feeling confident he could do more Assessment of Personality Type using the MMPI inventory Assessment utilizing SIGI3 system Assessment Continued More information can be obtain on the way Phil communicates and works which could add value to occupation selection Step 1 This could narrow the search of occupation that fit with trait strengths Phil exhibits Step 2 Utilizing occupation results from the assessments, encourage information gathering and give resources on the occupation results Step 3 Assist Phil in reviewing and making a decision on what occupation best fits his situation, and whether schooling is needed Treatment Plan Longterm Goal #1: Longterm Goal #2 Longterm Goal #3 Issue: Issue: Issue: Phil is dissatisfied with the amount of money he is making and his wife feels he is under employed Determine whether Phil wants to change careers Have Phil take the MMPI and a the Job Stress Survey Day 1 Utilize the SIGI3 system using the results of his assessments and discuss the results Day 2 Phil cannot leave his job to go to school and has no idea what he would study Determine what interest Phil and what his schedule is like if schooling is needed Reveal preliminary result. Discuss what interests areas Phil enjoys and how he defines success and achievement Day 3 Continue on the discussion of possible occupations and ask Phil to create a list of 5 for consideration by next session. Review results. Discuss occupations that may be suitable and supply additional information and resources Encourage Phil to seek out resources in his family, friends, and coworkers that may be helpful. Day 4 Discuss the work environment, education, and salaries of those five jobs to see what the best fit would be. Refer to Financial Adviser, and Admissions Coordinator Day 5 Phil will have to make changes to go to school and work if needed Determine if schooling is needed Day 6 Discuss his plans and whether he is comfortable with a decision and schedule a follow up after a month Day 7 Day 8 CPI- California Psychological Inventory 16 PF- Sixteen Personality Factor Questionaire Outside concerns must also be evaluated
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