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What is Response to Intervention?

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Haley Strobel

on 9 April 2015

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Transcript of What is Response to Intervention?

RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION




What is Response to Intervention?
*"Systematic and data-based method of identifying, defining, and resolving students' academic and/or behavior difficulties"
*Multi-tiered model where tiers vary in intensity
*Looks at the cause and effect relationship between academic or behavioral intervention and the responses of students to the intervention
*Interventions must be empirically supported through evidence of effectiveness
*A general education initiative (begin and end in general education)
*Types of instruction are differentiated to match
students' needs
*Provides a specific intervention differentiated for one
or more students and measures the students' response
*Addresses both academic and behavioral skills equally

History......
*Regular education initiative (REI) was created in the 1980s in response to increased numbers of special education placements
*This policy focused on keeping as many students as possible in the general education classroom
*Least restrictive environment (LRE) changed the assumption that all students with disabilities need to be in separate classrooms with specialized teaching
*Inclusive education examined how services were being provided rather than reducing number of students receiving services
RTI & Problem Solving
Problems with Traditional Approach
*Services only provided to those who qualify
*Instruction and intervention is not differentiated based on student needs
*Few students are returned to the general education classroom
*Segregated system fails to promote shared responsibility
*Minority students are overrepresented in special education
*Many students "fall through the cracks"
"Wait to fail model"
By the time pathology is identified, verified, and deemed eligible for services, the optimal years for teaching and learning have passed.
Instead, schools should have a model
based on prevention and intervention.
3 Main Components:
1. High-quality instruction
2. Frequent assessment
3. Data-based decision making
Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010
TIER 1:
SCIENTIFICALLY BASED CORE INSTRUCTION AND TRIANNUAL SCREENING ASSESSMENTS FOR ALL STUDENTS
TIER 2:
STRATEGIC SMALL-GROUP INSTRUCTION
WITH REGULAR PROFESS MONITORING
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TIER 3:
INTENSIVE
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ASSESSMENT

TIER 1:
SCHOOLWIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR RULES AND IMPLEMENTATION WITH SCREENING DATA FOR ALL STUDENTS
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TIER 3:
INTENSIVE
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ASSESSMENT
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STRATEGIC SMALL-GROUP INSTRUCTION
WITH REGULAR PROFESS MONITORING
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History of RTI
Principals related to RTI first appeared in literature in the 1970's.
RTI first appeared in School Psychology and Special Education literature with the reauthorization of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Act) in 2004.
RTI was used to determine the appropriateness of a referral for Special Education.
Special Educators saw RTI as a way to organize the needs of students.
Once RTI appeared in School Psychology and Special Education literature professions began examining the implications for RTI.
Traditional Approach to Service Delivery
A perception that pathology exists
Pathology must be identified if individual is to receive help
Pathology must fit into one or more of 13 categories
Identification of pathology informs type of service needed
4 Steps in Traditional Approach:
1. Assess
2. Identify
3. Verify
4. Eligible for Special Education
*This approach has been being used in schools
for over 30 years.
These movements have not completely disappeared but the movement has been shifting to use RTI methods.
RTI As A Mechanism of Change
Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010
Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010
5 Steps:
1. Problem Identification
2. Problem Definition
3. Designing Intervention Plans
4. Implementing the Intervention and Progress Monitoring
5. Problem Solution

Step 1: Problem Identification
Step 2: Problem Definition
Step 3: Designing Intervention Plans
Step 4: Implementing the Intervention & Progress Monitoring
Step 5: Problem Solution
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 3
Prevention versus Wait to Fail
Primary Prevention: programs and services designed for all students
Secondary Prevention: intervention for those who do not respond to the primary prevention methods
Tertiary Prevention: methods and procedures used for treating active cases of a condition
Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010
Importance of Early Intervention
Educating Parents in RTI
Why Educators Should Involve Parents in RTI
Parents want to comprehend what behavioral and academic support their child is receiving in school.
Parents want to know what they can do at home to help their child become more successful.
Reasons for Involving Parents in RTI
RTI is difficult for parents to understand.
Parents are not used to approaching learning difficulties from a problem solving model.
Parents need to know that a referral to Special Education can be an outcome of RTI.
If a parents child does need Special Education it can make the transition into Special Education easier.
By schools involving parents in school this provides more positive outcomes for students.

(Byrd, 2011)
(Jackson,
Pretti-Frontczak,
Harjusola-Webb, 2009)
This tier is known as the primary intervention.
Students are screened to identify at risk students.
The instruction that is implemented during this tier is research-based and whole group instruction.
Progress monitoring is used throughout this tier to assess students development.
Children who have difficulty with research-based curriculum are then referred to Tier 2.
Parents must consent to have their students receive Tier 2 intervention.
During Tier 2 students receive a more intense intervention such as receiving private tutoring while still receiving Tier 1 instruction.
Progress monitoring still continues throughout this intervention to see the students progress.
In Tier 3 students work with a specialized teacher.
The interventions provided during this stage is more intense and is continued for a longer duration.
If the teachers do not see any progress of the student at Tier 3 then students receive a referral for Special Education.
(Bayat, Mindes,& Covett, 2010)
(Bayat, Mindes, & Covett, 2010)
(Bayat, MIndes, & Covett, 2010)
Early delays can become a learning disability for a child if they are not addressed early on.
Early behavioral and emotional difficulties can result in future problems developmental learning.
(Bayat, Mindes,& Covett, 2010)
How does this apply to
Professionals in Education?
*RTI processes require collaborative
and flexible school personnel to
be successful!
Supportive school teams include:
-General education teachers
-Special education teachers
-School psychologists
-Specialists
-Administrators
Carpenter, E.S., Fewell, C. &Werts, M.G. (2014).
Who is using RTI now?

*In their national survey, Berkeley, Bender, Peaster and Saunders (2009) found that 47 out of 50 states have developed an RTI model or are in the process of doing so


Is RTI working?
Hughes, C.A. & Dexter, D.D., 2011
*A review of 13 field studies examining the impact of an RTI program on academic achievement or performance all reported some level of improvement
*These outcomes primarily relate to early reading and math skills
* Few studies review impacts of RTI on higher level reading, math, writing or other content skills
*Overall rates of Special Education referrals and placements remain fairly constant
Hughes, C.A. & Dexter, D.D., 2011
What are teachers saying?
One survey revealed barriers to the RTI processes according to SPED teachers:
- burdensome, created too much paperwork, time consuming, heavy workload
- Gaps in training and knowledge
- Attitudes, resistance to change and buy in
What are teachers saying, Cont'd..
The teacher survey reports that teachers see benefits of RTI as being:
- All students receive a higher level of instruction due to RTI implementation
- Students are not "falling through the cracks" and are getting services sooner
-Improved quality of SPED referrals

Carpenter, et. al, 2014
Carpenter, et. al, 2014
Byrd, E. (2011). Educating and Involving Parents in the Response to Intervention Process: The School's Important Role.
Teachers for Exceptional Children
, 43(3), 32-39.
Jackson, S., Pretti-Frontczak, K., Harjusola-Webb, S., Grisham-Brown, J., & Romani, J.M. (2009). Response to Intervention: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40(4), 424-434. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2009/08-0027)
Bayat, M., Mindes, G., Covitt, S.(2010). What Does RTI (Response to Intervention) Look like In Preschool?
Early Childhood Education Journal
, 37(6), 493-500. doi:10.1007/s10643-010-0372-6
Tier 1: Instruction
*Core reading instruction using a reading curriculum which includes 5 key components of reading instruction
*At least a 90 minute reading block which includes a variety of grouping formats
*Students typically grouped heterogeneously for small group instruction
Assessment:
*Universal screening assessment 3 times per year
*Assessment contained within reading curriculum and school-wide outcomes based assessments
(Callueng, 2014)
Tier 2: Introduction
*Tier 1 core reading instruction and
*30 minutes daily of small group skill-based intervention. Identification and monitoring of skill deficit is based on assessment data. Intervention is provided or supervised by a highly skilled teacher.
*Students are grouped homogeneously for small group intervention.
*Intervention is provided in 14 week cycles and students may be provided multiple rounds of intervention.
Assessment:
*All assessment provided within Tier 1 with the addition of bi-monthly progress monitoring assessments and "digging deeper" assessments to guide intervention.
(Callueng, 2014)
Tier 1: 80%
Tier 2: 15%
Tier 3: 5%
Tier 3: Introduction:
*Tier 1 reading instruction and
*60 minutes of daily small group skill-based reading intervention. Intervention is highly systematic and explicit and allows for multiple opportunities for response. Intervention is provided or supervised by a highly skilled teacher.
*Students are grouped homogeneously for small group intervention.
*Intervention is provided in 14 week cycles and students may be provided multiple rounds of intervention.
Assessment:
*All assessment provided within Tier 1 with the addition of bi-monthly progress monitoring assessments and "digging deeper" assessments to guide intervention.
(Callueng, 2014)
Elementary Development
6 years old
Learns five to ten new words each day.
Can use appropriate verb tense, word order, and sentence structure.
Writes numbers and letters.
Folds and cuts paper into shapes.
Identify major coins (nickels, dimes, pennies, and quarters).
They are more dependent on friendships than family.
Likes to be read to.
They are easily frustrated by their own failures.
(Marotz & Allen, 2013)
Elementary Development Continued....
7 years old
Understands space and time.
They are better able to understand Piaget's term of conservation.
Can tell time by the clock and they can read the calendar.
Seven year old's are able to count money and they find reading to be easier.
Elementary students are able to use adult like sentence structure.
They like to be a "teachers helper."
Elementary Development....
8 years old
Can carry out five step instructions.
They like to read and work on their own.
Have a better understanding of grammar when talking and writing.
Are able to understand that some kids are better at certain things than others.
9 to 10 years old
Like to use their hands for arts and crafts.
With development they are able to make more reasonable decisions because of their experiences and logic.
Express their emotions through words and understands that words have double meanings.
Developing more concepts of time, weight, volume, and distance.
Students are able to recall events.
They like to read books that have more detail and are longer.
Elementary Development....

11 to 12 years Old
Has additional energy that needs to be released at school.
They start to have abstract thinking.
Students are more successful at ordering, classifying, and sequencing events because of their improvement of long term memory.
Can perform routines without thinking.
By this age most of the language development has been completed.
Have more intricate vocabulary and they add 4,000 to 5,000 new words to their vocabulary each year.
If Elementary Development does not progress correctly this can result in problems with learning at the elementary level.
Now elementary schools are implementing RTI to help elementary students who are not meeting the developmental milestones of their age groups. This is where Response to Intervention can help students develop and learn better.
Connection between Elementary Development and RTI
(Marotz & Allen, 2013)
(Marotz & Allen, 2013)
(Marotz & Allen, 2013)
Marotz, L. & Allen, E. (2013).
Developmental Profiles Pre-Birth Through Adolescence.
Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
The first step begins with problem identification activities.
Activities include any and all moments when a student's school difficulties are initially identified.
This step can be compared to a radar screen.
For example, those who monitor the screen don't know what is causing the blip (problem), but they know it needs to be addressed.
Many different people are involved in identifying the problem (teachers, parents, students, administrators, etc.).
The sole purpose of this step is to identify a problem and collect more data about that problem.



This step includes evaluating the nature and magnitude of the problem and determining whether the problem requires an intervention or might resolve itself.
Evaluating the student's skills in certain areas and comparing them to what is expected.
Measurements that would be used are; reading fluency, frequency of on-task behaviors, and rate of homework completion.
Once the student's current behaviors have been identified is it possible to know the magnitude and importance of the problem identified.
Some problems may be very small and likely to resolve on their own over time.
The third step includes putting in place specific activities and procedures designed to reduce significantly the difference between what a student can currently do and what he or she is expected to do.
Educators can help students to chart a new course by designing ways to improve their skills so they can be successful.
Effective interventions include methods such as direct instruction of specific skills, positive behavior interventions and supports, and peer-assisted learning strategies.
A specific time frame and plan for implementing the intervention will be crucial links to the next steps of the problem solving process.
Implementing the Intervention

Progress Monitoring
There are two major components to this step, implementation and progress monitoring
The intervention should be implemented as planned and intended.
The intervention plan should include some form of verification to document whether the plan was implemented as intended.
The only way to know if an intervention works is to collect data.
The first moment that an intervention is put into place, data concerning the outcomes must be collected.
Data collection methods can include recording the frequency, rate, accuracy, duration, and intensity of a behavior or skill.
Determination of what type of data recording procedure to use is based on the specific nature of the problem.
It also involves ongoing data analysis.
The important aspect of the last step of the model is that it allows recognition of success by noting when certain preset criteria for success are met
The specific way that each school problem will be solved will always differ according to the strengths and needs of each child.
The problem-solving model is set up to be used continuously, as needed.
This step provides all members of the school team with the chance to identify what had been successful and build upon it when developing new goals and plans.

Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2010). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Hughes, C.A and Dexter, D.D. (2011). Response to Intervention: A Research Based Summary. Theory Into Practice, 50 (1) 4-1. DOI: 10.1080/00405841.2011.534909
Carpenter, E.S., Fewell, C. & Werts, M.G. (2014). Barriers and Benefits to Reponse to Intervention: Perceptions of Special Education Teachers.
Rural Special Education Quarterly,
33 (2) 3-11. http://0-content.ebscohost.com.rosi.unk.edu
8 years old
Understands multiple step instructions.
Can follow grammar when writing and talking.
Grasps basic understanding of conservation.
Use more refined logic to comprehend everyday events.
Reads with ease and comprehension.
Can add and subtract multiple digit numbers.
Start to learn multiplication and division.
(Marotz & Allen, 2013)
9 to 10 years old
Identifies that words have double meanings.
Comprehends grammatical sequences.
Learns best when it is hands on.
They can think of events by using recall.
Improving concepts of time such as time, weight, volume, and distance.
Like to read and write not when in school.
Better understands cause and effect.
11 to 12 years old
Language development is mostly complete by this stage.
Think more in abstract terms.
Comprehends that problems can have multiple answers.
With the improvement of long term memory they are better at sequencing, ordering, and classifying.
Vocabulary increases to 4,000-5,000 new words every year.
Ability to focus longer.
Can perform task without having to think about them.
(Marotz & Allen, 2013)
(Marotz & Allen, 2013)
RTI and Elementary Development
If students are not meeting these developments at each of these ages this can have an impact on their learning ability in school.
This is where RTI comes in to help students develop and progress as they grow so that they are able to develop and learn at their age level.
(Callueng, 2014)
(Callueng, 2014)
Callueng, C. (2014). Academic Problem Solving Assessment {Class handout}. College of Education, University of Nebraska Kearney, Kearney, Nebraska.
References
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