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Nanotechnology in Cancer Medicine

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Shimon Shimmy

on 24 September 2012

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Transcript of Nanotechnology in Cancer Medicine

*Jennifer H.Grossman and **Scott E.McNeilPhysics TodayReview Article Nanotechnology In Cancer Medicine *Scientist at the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory at the Fredrick National Laboratory for Cancer Research in Fredrick, Maryland and an adjunct professor of physics at American University in Washington, DC
**Director of the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory Electron Microscope Photographs of Cancer Cells What is A Cancer Cell? Breast Cancer Cell Cancer Cell under attack by the immune system Brain Cancer Cell Prostate Cancer Cell *D.Hanahan, R.A Weinberg, Cell 100, 57 (2000) Hallmarks of Cancer תכונות הסרטן Possible Causes for the development of Cancer Chemicals/Carcinogens
Diet and exercise
Infections
Radiation
Heredity
Hormones Chemotherapy
Surgery
Radiation
Alternative treatments Treating Cancer The treatments of Chemotherapy and radiation damage healthy cells.
Surgery is an invasive treatment and causes damage to the body.
Sometimes the treatments themselves encourage the growth of new cancer cells. The Problems with classic treatments Approaching cancer treatment as if it were a physics problem: a problem of mass transport and fluid mechanics.
Making use of Nanotechnology to create safer and more effective drugs. The solution: EPR: The property by which certain sizes of molecules accumulate in cancer tissue more than they do in regular tissue. Enhanced Permeability and Retention Effect (EPR) כלי דם מסביב לגידול סרטני Tumor stroma: a protective shell a tumor builds around itself.
High fluid pressure in tumor cores. Cancer Cell's Defenses Countering the defenses: Antiangiogenic medicines can lower the pressure at the tumor core.
Designing release mechanisms in response to external stimulus:light,ultrasound,heat or magnetic field. Transport of Drugs by Nanoparticles to tumor cores (by use of the EPR effect) The Nanomedicines Nanoparticles vary in the number and arrangement of its atoms. This gives rise to polydispersity. This polydispersity translates into a change of properties between two batches that were synthesized by the same synthesis.
High cost of the new drugs in comparison to the old ones.
Although the new drugs impart a better quality of life to the patients it offers a modest increase in survivability.
The bureaucracy of the development of new drugs. The Challenges of
Nanomedicines Improving the synthesis of nanomedicines, resulting in better manufacturing and cheaper drugs.
Continuing with the personalization of the drugs, making an effective drug to a specific cancer.
Developing multistage nanoparticles. A look to the future Used as a coating for nanoparticles.
Reduces protein binding and MPS (mononuclear phagocyte system) uptake.
Increases the circulation time of the nanoparticles in the blood. Polyethylene glycol
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