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CfE H Geography - Lithosphere - Coasts Revision
Transcript of CfE H Geography - Lithosphere - Coasts Revision
The waves mostly erode the bottom of the cliff, which gets worn away to form a 'wave-cut notch'
As the wave-cut notch gets bigger the cliff cannot support itself and collapses into the sea.
This process is repeated over time and a gentle sloping 'wave-cut platform is left in front of the cliff. This will be exposed at low-tide.
HEADLANDS & BAYS
Where bands of hard-rock (e.g. Chalk) and soft-rock (e.g. Clay) meet the coast, rate of erosion differ. The soft-rock gets eroded to form sheltered bays, often with beaches. The hard rock sticks out into the Sea and an exposed headland is formed.
CAVES, STACKS & STUMPS
An exposed headland is subjected to the full force of the sea and is therefore eroded.
Water begins to erode away 'fault lines' in the rock through hydraulic action, corrasion and solution.
The fault is widened to form a 'sea-cave'.
The cave is eroded right through the headland creating an 'arch'.
As the sides of the arch are further eroded the roof of the arch cannot be supported and collapses leaving a stand-alone 'Stack'.
This stack is further eroded and eventually collapses to leave behind a 'stump'.
The next part of the Prezi contains a good video for revision - it does last just over 18 minutes so make sure you have enough time to watch it!
As well as being able to DESCRIBE and EXPLAIN the CONDITIONS and PROCESSES involved in the formation of features, you must also try to remember and quote case study examples e.g. Old Harry, Dorset (Stack)
Remember to use your can-do checklist to help you prioitise your revision
Questions in the exam will most likely be in the following format:
EXPLAIN the CONDITIONS AND PROCESSES involved in the formation of [one of the features]
You must mention conditions and if possible all 4 processes.
The longer the wind has been blowing combined with the distance the wind has been blown across the sea/ocean (FETCH) the more energy the waves will have, and therefore, more erosive power
Areas that have well-jointed rocks are more easily attacked by the process of HYDRAULIC ACTION.
The sheer power of the waves as they crash into the coastline, often with explosive force, compressing the air against the cliff and causing it to break up.
CORRASION / ABRASION
The 'sandpaper effect' when waves, which have rocks and pebbles in them, erode away the coastline.
CORROSION / SOLUTION
Chemicals (weak acid) and salt in seawater slowly dissolve rock minerals on the coastline.
Waves smash rocks and pebbles on the shore into each other, and they break and become smoother.
On-shore winds make waves approach at an angle (swash), but they go back down (backwash) at right angles to the beach. Resulting in material gradually moving along the coastline
CASE STUDY EXAMPLES:
CASE STUDY EXAMPLES:
OLD MAN OF HOY
OLD HARRY'S WIFE
When the coastline changes direction, such as at a river estuary, LONGSHORE DRIFT [explain process] will continue to transport sediment in the same direction as the original coastline.
This sediment is deposited in the open water and builds up new land over time.
A temporary change in wind direction causes the spit to curve at its end.
The area of water sheltered by the spit fills up with mud and forms into a 'salt-marsh'.
BARS / TOMBOLOS
A 'bar' is formed if deposition keeps going right across a bay, and joins up with a beach on the other side.
Shallow, stagnant water, trapped behind the bar, is called a 'lagoon'.
A 'tombolo' will form when a spit grows out into open water and reaches an island. The island is then joined to the mainland by the tombolo.
COASTAL DEPOSITION FEATURES
CASE STUDY EXAMPLE:
HURST SPIT, DORSET
CASE STUDY EXAMPLES: