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World History Time Line

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John Aya

on 11 May 2011

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Transcript of World History Time Line

World History Time Line The Rise of Civilization
8000 B.C.E.-1000 B.C.E. Pre-civilization can be divided into two parts:
Paleolithic Age
Neolithic Age Hunter/Gatherer Societies
Small population groups
No permanent settlements
Social equality among all
Change from Paleolithic to Neolithic involved: Domestication of animals & Discovery of Agriculture Now able to acquire food on a daily basis & no longer nomadic: more stability & order
Surplus of food leads to specialization in other skills: artisans, as well as the ability to trade surplus goods with other communities: contact between communities
Dramatic increase in population
Male now works in food production and female at home: Males became dominant workers in society
River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia (3500 BCE) - Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East
Egypt (3000 BCE) - Nile River in northeastern Africa
Indus Valley people (2500 BCE) - Indus River in south central Asia
Shang China (1700 BCE) - North China plains
8000 B.C.E. Pre-history 3500 B.C.E. Mesopotamia Independent city-states - weak and vulnerable to invasion
Built irrigation canals for agriculture
Developed Code of Hammurabi 3000 B.C.E. Invaded by Sumerians -establish civilization
Developed cuneiform alphabet -1st known case of human writing 3500 B.C.E. Sumerians fall to Akkadian people Akkadians fall to Babylonians
Extend empire -brings civilization across Middle East
King Hammurabi establishes 1st written law 1200-900 B.C.E Politcal units decline
New invaders: Assyrians and Persians each establish new empires Egypt Benefited from trade and technology from Mesopotamia 3000 B.C.E 2700 B.C.E. Egyptians begin building pyramids as tombs for Pharaohs 1000 B.C.E. Weak rule and invasions lead to Ancient Egypt's fall 2500 B.C.E. Indus River Valley Trading contacts with Mesopotamia
Developed distinct alphabet and art 2500 B.C.E. Urban civilization occurs along Indus River Harappa and Mohenjo Daro established -large cities with running water 1000 B.C.E. Indus valley civilization in decline United under one central governement -controlled resources of the state
Egyprtians believed the Pharaoh was a god -reinforced by religious myths Huanghe River Valley Most rule was local -network of walled towns w/ leader loyal to the king
Local leaders made up the bureaucracy -aristocratic chieftains, could be removed at the king’s will
The family was the most important social institution with men having most all of the
The honor and respect given to family elders -worship of ancestors, reinforcing patriarchy.
2500 B.C.E. 2000 B.C.E. Advanced techology and elaborate intellectual life
Horses, pottery, and bronze
1500 B.C.E. 1000 B.C.E. Shang Dynasty Established Huanghe enters Iron Age Civilization in Huanghe (Yellow) River Valley Begins The Classical Period
1000 B.C.E.-500 C.E Classical Civilizations China (1029 BCE) - Zhou Dynasty in central China
India (1500 BCE) - Vedic Age
Greece (800 BCE) - Greek city-states
Rome (509 BCE) -Roman Republic
Common features:
Patriarchal family structures - valued male authority within most aspects of life.
Agricultural-based economies - Despite more sophisticated and complex job specialization, the most common occupation in all areas was farming.
Complex governments - Because of their large size, these civilizations had to invent new ways to keep their lands together politically.
Expanding trade base - Their economic systems were complex. Although they generally operated independently, trade routes connected them by both land and sea.
Classical China During decline of the Shang, the Zhou family takes over and introduces the Mandate of Heaven -the emperor has divine right to rule
Zhou decline -Era of Warring States (402-201 BCE) -creation of philosophical thought: Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism
Qin Dynasty established
Han Dynasty etablished 1029 B.C.E. 402-201 B.C.E. Era of the Warring States Philosophy was promoted to lessen impact of political confusion.
Confucius (Conucianism) -emphasized heirarchy in family and state
Laozi (Daoism) -empahsized relationship with nature
Legalists (Legalism) -emphasized that state should force subjects to obey with a strict code of laws and punishments Zhou Dynasty promoted linguistic unity:Mandarin
Introduced Mandate of Heaven -divine right to rule & the Dynastic cycle
Qin Dynasty Established by Qin Shi Huangdi, First Emperor
Brutal & effective ruler -crushed regional resistance
Organized China into large provinces with bureaucrats from non aristocratic groups, appointed by the emperor
Expand Chinese territory south and built the Great Wall
Innovated national census for tax and labor, and standardized measures and script 221 B.C.E. 210 B.C.E Qin Shi Huangdi dies Massive peasant revolts break out & won by founder of Han Dynasty 202 B.C.E. Han Dynasty Retained centralized administration which emphasized Confucian values, but reduced brutal repression
Expaneded territory into Korea, Indochina, and Central Asia
Introduced trade with Roman Empire 140-87 B.C.E. Emperor Wu Ti Supported Confucianism
Enforced peace throughout Asia
Larger territory and population
Great prosperity for China
220-589 C.E. Han Decline Central control weakened
Invasions from nomadic people of Central Asia (Huns)
1000 B.C.E. Classical India Vedic Age (1500-1000 B.C.E.) -Aryan (Indo-European) migrants impacted social structure and culture. Named for Vedas (meaning knowledge) the sacred books written in Sankrit language.
Epic Age (1000-600 B.C.E.) -Named for Epic poems with more mystical and religious focuses Aryan influenced social structure -Indain Caste System consisting ofVarnas (Aryan social classes)
Kshatriyas -Warrior/Governing class
Brahmans -Preistly Class
Vaisyas -traders and farmers
Sudras -common laborers
Untouchables -lowest class w/ worst jobs
Brahmans overtake Kshatriyas as top class in Epic Age -importance of Religion in India
Social Classes become hereditary
Basic castes divied into subgroups called jati Epic Age -Established dominant religion Hinduism as well as Buddhism Hinduism -Polytheistic & believed in reincarnation in different castes based on life. Reinforced Caste System: appealed to upper castes
Buddism -established by Siddhartha Gautama. Countered the caste system: appealed to lower castes Mauryan Empire (322-298 B.C.E.)
Gupta Empire (319-535 B.C.E.) 1500-1000 B.C.E Vedic Age Sanskrit language developed
Rig-Veda -1028 hyms to Aryan Gods 1000-600 B.C.E Epic Age Mahabharata
Upanishads 16 major states existed in India in 600 B.C.E. 327 B.C.E. Alexander the Great controlled northwestern Inda 322 B.C.E Chandragupta Maurya Seizes power along the Ganges & established Mauryan Dynasty
unifies much of Indian subcontinent for the first time 269-232 B.C.E. Ashoka Grandson of Chandragupta
Converted to Buddhism beacause of belief in Dharma:Law of Moral Consequences
Empire falls after his death 232-220 B.C.E. Kushans rule Invaders from the northwest
Collase in 220 B.C.E. lead to instabilty for 100 years 320 B.C.E Gupta Empire 535 C.E. Gupta falls to Hun invaders 800 B.C.E. Greece No centralized government; concept of polis, or a fortified site that formed the centers of many city-states: Governing styles varied (Sparta a military state, Athens eventually a democracy for adult males)
Athens: Valued education, emphasis on human, politcal theory -democracy, emphasized logic
Sculpture, literature, math, written language, and record keeping
Polytheism, with gods having very human characteristics
800 B.C.E. Rise of Greek city-states; Athens and Sparta dominate 470-460 B.C.E. Athens at its height Pericles, Phidias, Sophocles, Socrates 431-404 B.C.E. Peloponnesian Wars Athens and Sparta battle for control of Greece. Both are soon conquered by Macedonia 359-336 B.C.E. Philip II of Macedonia Philip II conquers battle in 338 B.C.E.
Alexander, his son, extendsMacedonian Empire throughout the Middle East
Begining of the Hellenistic Period 500 B.C.E. Rome Roman Republic drove out exisiting monarchy in 509 B.C.E.
Extensive colonization and military conquest
(aristocrats) and plebeians (free farmers)
Military: conquer demand taxes; army: made of legions, emphasized organization and rewarding military talent
Art, literature, philosophy, science derivative from Greece
Engineering and architecture techniques: extensive road, sanitation systems; monumental architecture -buildings, aqueducts, bridges
Polytheism, derivative from Greeks
Christianity developed during Empire period, but not dominant until very late
Republic - rule by aristocrats, with some power shared with assemblies; Senate most powerful, with two consuls chosen to rule, generally selected from the military
Generals seek greater power: Civil War -Julius Ceasar wins in 45 B.C.E.
Empire - non-hereditary emperor; technically chosen by Senate, but generally chosen by predecessor 590 B.C.E. Roman Republic 264-146 B.C.E. Punic Wars Rome fights war with Phoenician city of Carthage 49 B.C.E. Julius Caesar Caesar becomes dictator and is assassinated in 44 B.C.E. 27 B.C.E. Augustus Caesar Takes the throne: Begins Roman Empire 476 C.E. Fall of Rome 312-337 C.E. Constantine Set up a capital city, Constantinople
Regulate Eastern half of the Empire
Introduced Christianity
unify the empire spiritually Western Half of Empire is taken by Germanic Invaders
Franks, Syagrius, Visigoths, Burgundians, Odovacar, Ostrogoths, Vandals 527-565 C.E. Justinian Tries to recapture the Roman Empire
Controls Italy The Postclassical Era
500 C.E.-1450 C.E. Divided into Eastern (Byzantine) and Western Epmires 600 C.E. Rise and Spread of Islam Muhammad -founds Islam in early 7th Century
Islam: Monotheistic, highly developed legal codes, egalitarianism, and strong sense of community Five Pillars
There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet
Pray five times a day, facing Mecca
Fast during Ramadan
Donate to Charity
Pilgrimage to Mecca Leadership crisis brought on by death of Muhammad in 632
Caliph -political and religious successor of Muhammad
Ali, cousin, concidered too young & Abu Bakr (caliph from 632-634)
Sunni support Umayyads
Shi'a support Ali Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commerce in Mecca; later establish dynasty as rulers of Islam Under Umayyads: Islam spread into Mesopotamia, Palestine, Persia, North Africa, and Western Europe
military conquerors, showed strong favoritism toward the Arab military aristocracy
Umayyad later took to luxurious living and came to care little for Islamic doctrine or morality
Rebellion in Persia headed by the Abbasid clan overthrow Umayyads and establish a more lasting dynasty centered in Baghdad Relgion supported trade -customs and beliefs quickly diffuse throughout South Asia, North Africa, and Spain in the 10th-16th Centuries 570-632 Life of the Prophet Muhammad 597-626 Wars between Byzantine and Sasanian (Persian) Empires 610 Muhammad's first revelations 613 Muhammad begins to preach 622 Muhammad's flight to Medina Umayyad are threatened by Muhammad's growing power and he must flee Mecca to Medina 624-627 Wars between Muhammad and Quraysh of Mecca
Ends in Mislim-Meccan Truce 632 Death of Muhammad 656-661 Fist Civil War Supporters of Ali resist Umayyad caliphate
leads to death of Ali and his son, Hasan 680-692 Second Civil War 744-750 Third Civil War; Abbasid revolt Abbasid Caliphate founded Persian Buyids capture Baghdad 945 Buyids -regional splinter dynasty, captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under title - Sultan
Abbasids left as figure heads 1096-1099 First Christian Crusade in Palestine 1290s Beginning of spread of Islam in Southeast Asia 1291 Fall of Acre; last Crusader stronghold in Middle East 1258 Fall of Baghdad to Mongols; end of Abbasid Caliphate Mongols, lead by Hulegu (grandson of Chinggis Khan) captured Baghdad in 1258, which never recovered from attacks.
Baghdad slowly resplaced by Cairo and then Istanbal Based on teachings of Jewish and Christian faith African Empires The Bantu
: Sub-Saharan Africa was extremely diversified; never united under a universal religion or empire/state - root language = common structure and vocabulary for African languages; mutual understanding among tribes.
African stateless societies: organized around kinship and family obligation with no centralized authority; no large armies, no large-scale political organization, no large building projects, nor long-distant trade
African tribes animistic belief systems
North Africa - fully integrated with Mediterranean and Arab of trade
Sub-Saharan - economies primarily local and regional and varied
Nubia and Ethiopia
“islands” of Christianity - came to Africa before Islam
Nubia and Ethiopia (Axum or Aksum ) had Christian communities for several centuries before Muslims - own unique Christian practices: Coptic
Ethiopia - Surrounded by Muslims and pagans: became self-sufficient
carved churches out of the mountain rock
16th century - threatened by a neighboring Muslim state, Portuguese arrived and drove the Muslims back and in return attempted to convert the Ethiopians to Roman Catholicism. This failed and Ethiopia remained an isolated, Christian, and fiercely independent civilization.
Ghana, Mali and Songhai
Ghana (300 C.E.-1200 C.E.)
Kings of Ghana from Soninke family; claim that Soninke king had rights over all gold - automatic form of taxation
Traders from the Ghana area formed link between salt from the North Africa, and gold from sub-Saharan region: integrated them into the Mediterranean trade connections
Control of the trans-Saharan gold trade: fund a large army and rise to empire status
7th century - trading partners Muslims
11th century - Ghana kings converted to Islam

Mali (1200 C.E.-1500 C.E.)
1200s - Chief of the Malinke people challenged Soninke family
Sundiata triumphed over the Soninke people and established Mali
Sundiata - The Lion Prince, a devout Muslim but is still concerned with pleasing the traditional spirits as well.
Ruled by kings called Mansas - Mansa Musa, in 1324-1325 he made his famous hajj: put Mali “on the map” showing wealth and extravagance of Mali & shows serious role of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa

Songhai (1500 C.E.-1591 C.E. Unit III)
Sonni Ali, a self-proclaimed Muslim, founded Songhai
Ali was a military conqueror
Destroyed in 1591 by invaders from Morocco: had firearms

Timbuktu - important trading hub for salt and gold 100-200 C.E. Camels introduced for trade in Sahara 300 C.E. Origins of Ghana 600-700 C.E. Islam spreads across North Africa 1200 C.E. Rise of Mali 1324 C.E. Hajj of Mansa Musa 1400 C.E. Timbuktu & Jenne flourish 1500 C.E. Songhay Empire flourishes Byzantine Empire The Roman Empire divided into two parts in 4th century: imperial power shifted from Rome to Byzantium (renamed Constantinople by Emperor Constantine)
Eastern empire remained intact, while the West was falling to the Germanic invasions: survived for almost a millennium after the western empire collapsed Came under pressure from Islamic Turks in the 11th century, and fell to Ottoman Turks in 1453

Constantine claimed divine favor for his rule & defined Christian practices: Caesaropapism - emperor ruled as secular lord and religious leader
Emperor Justinian:
Built the Hagia Sophia, a magnificent domed church (today a Muslim mosque)
Extneded of the political boundaries of the empire to regain most of the western territories again, only to be lost by later emperors
Developed the Justinian Code: systemized Roman law going back to the Republic and continuing through the empire (basis of law in western Europe and eventually the United States)

Byzantine Empire fell to Arab invaders. It thrived for a while as a smaller, more manageable entity, but by the late 11th century, the Seljuk Turks threatened Constantinople so that the Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church called on Pope Urban II for help in defending the capital by Christian Crusaders.

330 C.E. Constantinople made Capital of Eastern Roman Empire 527-565 C.E. Emperor Justinian Wife - Theodora: powerful political figure
Tried to reclaim much of the old Roman Empire 718 C.E. Defeat of Arab attack on Constantinople
Arabs built fleet to challenge Byzantine Naval Supremacy and took provences on eastern Mediterranean
Sieged capital in 717-718
Wars are new economic burdens fro empire 1054 C.E. Eastern an Western Christianity split 1100-1453 C.E. Byzantine Decline and growing Turkish attack 1203-1204 C.E. Capture of Constantinople during 4th Crusade Roman Church excommunitcated the east; the east excomminicated all Roman Catholics 1237-1241 C.E. Capture of Russia by Mongols 1453 C.E. Capture of Constantinople by Ottoman Turks; End of Byzantine Empire Era of Division 800 C.E. Westen Europe Catholic Church emerged as a unifying institution: religious, political, and economic power
Development of a church hierarchy – Pope, cardinals, archbishops, bishops, priests
Establishment of wandering ministries - Wandering priests represented its influence Franciscans: vows of poverty and ability to relate to peasants and the Dominicans: scholarly order - ministered to educational needs.
The establishment of monasteries- Monasteries for monks and Convents for nuns spread all over Europe. Functions:
1) Refuge for those in trouble - The monasteries and convents were seen as safe havens - represented protection of church offered to people.
2) Communication to the central church hierarchy - Abbots headed monasteries and kept church officials informed
3) Centers of scholarship, education, and libraries - Monks often only people in Europe that could read and write - copied ancient manuscripts and eventually formed the first European universities Promoted by Germanic group, the Franks - controlled much of what is now France
Clovis converted to Christianity (496 C.E.)
His Descendant, Charlemagne, ruled a huge kingdom (modern day France and Germany) crowned as the new "Holy Roman Emperor," uniting church and state.
Fuedal System: Landlords and Serfs After 1300 (Middle Ages) The Agricultural Revolution - Europeans learned agricultural techniques and inventions: increased crop production
Population increases - increase in crop production came population growth
Revival of trade - started in Venice and Genoa - profited from trade during the Crusades
Growth of towns/new towns - villages become towns: centers for craftsmen, merchants, and specialized laborers.
Commercial Revolution - towns connected to long-distance trade routes, developed banks and bills of exchange
Guilds - Craftsmen formed guilds: pass laws, levy taxes, challenge powerful merchants, set standards for goods, regulated labor, and supervised apprentices
732 C.E. Franks defeat Muslims in France 800-814 C.E. Charlemagne's Empire 962 C.E. Germanic Kings "revive" Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire 1018 C.E. Beginning of Christian reconquest of Spain 1096-1270 C.E. Crusades 1215 C.E. Magna Carta 1265 C.E. First English Parliament 1338-1453 C.E. Hundred Years War France v.s. England 1469 C.E. Formation of Single Spanish Monarchy 900 C.E. The Americas THE MAYA (300 and 900 C.E.)
Occupied southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador
Agricultural techniques: slash and burn and terraces

THE AZTECS (1325-1520 C.E.)
Aztecs: "the place of the seven legendary caves"
Settled in an island in the middle of Lake Texococo: city of Tenochtitlan (later Mexico City)
Expanded by conquering nearby people and extracting tribute

THE INCA (1350-1520 C.E.)
15th century, empire 2500 miles along Andes Mountain range (Equador to Chile)
Cuzco - capital was connected to all parts of the empire by system of roads and bridges
"Inca": title for the ruler of Cuzco, eventually referred to all people that spoke the language, Quechu
Lived on the narrow, dry seacoast west of the mountains and in the jungles east, but centered civilization in the mountain valleys of the Andes
South Americans domesticated animals (Llamas and alpacas) - pack animals, provided wool, hides, and dung for fuel. Tula established by Toltecs 968 C.E. 1150 C.E. Fall of Tula and Toltec Empire 1325 C.E. Aztecs established; Tenochtitlan founded 1350 C.E. Inca established China After the fall of the Han Dynasty (3rd century):
Sui Dynasty (589-618 C.E.) - restored centralized imperial rule
building of the Grand Canal, series of manmade waterways that connected the major rivers: made possible for China to increase internal trade (1240 miles long with roads on either side) Tang Dynasty (618-907 C.E.)
rebel leader seized China's capital (Xi'an) - emperor of the Tang Dynasty
Three major accomplishments:
Transportation and communications system - The Grand Canal and an advanced road system, w/ inns, postal stations, and stables
The equal-field system - ensure that land distribution was fair and equitable: help to control the powerful families (helped cause fall of Han Dynasty)
A merit-based bureaucracy - government officials were well educated, loyal, and efficient
Song Dynasty (960-1279 C.E.)
Warlords began to challenge the Tang rulers - encouraged nomadic groups to invade the fringes of the empire
Military commander emerged in 960 to reunite China emphassize civil administration, industry, education, and the arts: characterized by prosperity, sophistication, and creativity.
Problems under Song
Finances - The expansion of the bureaucracy = increase government expenses. Government raises taxes, but peasants rose in rebellions in protest
Military - Song military led by scholar bureaucrats. The Jurchens (northern nomadic group) conquered other nomads, overran northern China, and captured the Song capital. The Song were left with only the southern part of their empire (conquered by the Mongols in 1279 C.E.) Economic Revolutions:
Increasing agricultural production - Tang conquest of southern China and Vietnam added new capability for agriculture: the cultivation of rice. Techniques improved as well: heavy iron plow in north and water buffaloes in south, extensive irrigation systems
Increasing population - 1200 population about 115 million
Urbanization - Established cities grew and new ones were created. Xi'an (population of 2,000,000): largest city in the world w/ large markets, public theatres, restaurants, and craft shops
Technological innovations - Tang craftsmen discovered techniques for producing lighter, thinner, more useful, and much more beautiful porcelain, iron and steel. New technologies invented: gunpowder, movable type printing, and the magnetic compass. Gunpowder was first used in bamboo flame throwers, and by the 11th century inventors had constructed crude bombs
Financial inventions - Chinese merchants developed paper money. Letters of credit called "flying cash" allowed merchants to deposit money in one location and have it available in another. The Chinese also used checks which allowed drawing funds deposited with bankers. The Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368 C.E.) and the early Ming (1279-1450 C.E.)
Mongols breach the Great Wall under Genghis Khan. southern Song was conquered by his grandson, Kublai Khan set up a new capital in Beijing, called Khanbaluk, or "city of the Khan."
Mongols replaced the top bureaucrats and respected Chinese customs and innovations and adept in military affairs and conquest
had too few military to protect too many borders. The Mongols increased tributes and established "tax farming," (a practice that gave middlemen the responsibility of collecting taxes), which led to corruption: inspired conspiracy among the Confucian scholars who toppled the Mongols, and established the Ming Empire
Zhu Yuan Zhang located capital in Nanjing, rejected the culture of the Mongols and reasserting Confucian ideology.
Sinification of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan Korea
Conquered by Wudi of the Han Dynasty in about 100 B.C.E. Chinese influence remained.
Buddhism: cultural bridge linking China to Korea
Chinese writing was introduced
Koreans tried to emulate the Chinese style of bureaucracy but failed to overcome the power of the aristocracy
Tang Dynasty conquered Korea and struck a deal with the Silla kingdom of Korea: become vassals of the Tang dynasty and make regular tribute payments
Korean leaders sought to emulate Chinese culture Vietnam
Has distinct social and cultural heritage
Han dynasty conquered Vietnam and pulled them into their bureaucratic structure
Tang dynasty was met with fierce resistance but set out to assimilate the Viets into Chinese culture
Viets did not enthusiastically cooperate with their Chinese overlords and scorned many aspects of Chinese civilization. They selectively adopted from the Chinese: system of military organization, irrigation technology
Viets resisted total Sinification: resented the distain Chinese bureaucrats had for their traditions
Women in Vietnam had higher positions in society than many other civilizations: allowed to freely engage in independent activities -rejected Confucian teachings
When the Tang dynasty fell into decline, the Viets mounted a massive revolt and won their independence from China and would retain its independence until the 19th century when the French incorporated it into its colonial empire.
Buddhism became an enduring and powerful feature of Vietnam. Japan
Chose to emulate Chinese civilization: never conquered by Chinese, but the success of China under the Tang dynasties motivated Japanese emperors to important elements of Chinese civilization.
Taika reforms (646 C.E.) an attempt to reconstruct the Japanese imperial government like: sought to create a professional bureaucracy with an army of peasant soldiers loyal to the emperor, introduced the equal-field system of agriculture. And, lower classes converted to Buddhism
Aristocrats feared the power of Buddhists over the government - plot by Buddhists to take over the imperial government
Emperor uprooted capital at Nara, a place of Buddhist temples and power, and moved it to Heian 28 miles away. The Taika reforms were abandoned and Japan’s great aristocratic families were returned to power in the various provinces.
Heian era - Japanese courtly life reached a pinnacle of aristocratic and social sophistication
Fujiwara family - basically ruled Japan through their influence at the capital city of Heian: decrease of imperial control, banditry and crime increased
Powerful families carved out regional kingdoms and political power fragmented in Japan
Shogun, a military dictator who ruled from the imperial capital through the use of local warrior leaders called bushi
15th century claims to the Shogunate led to civil war, feudal kingdoms emerged protected by samurai loyal to local warlords now called daimyos The World Shrinks
1450 C.E.-1750 C.E. 1400 C.E. 111 B.C.E. Vietnam conquered by Chinese 109 B.C.E. Choson (Korea) conquered by Chinese 39 C.E. Trung Sisters revolt in Vietnam 589-618 C.E. Sui Dynasty in China 618-907 C.E. Tang Dynasty in China 646 C.E. Taika Reforms in Japan 668-918 C.E. Silla kingdom in Korea 690-705 C.E. Empress Wu; peak of Buddhist influence in China 710-784 C.E. Imperial Japanese capital in Nara 794 C.E. Japanese capital shifts to Heian (Kyoto) 838 C.E. Last Japanese embassy to China 840s C.E. Buddhist persecution in China 857-1160 C.E. Fujiwara Dominance in Japan 918-1391 C.E. Koryo dynasty in Korea 939 C.E. Vietnam wins independence from China 960-1279 C.E. Song Dynasty in China 980-1009 C.E. Le Dynasty in Vietnam 1100 C.E. Invention of gunpowder 1127-1279 C.E. Southern Song Dynasty 1231-1392 C.E. Mongol Rule in Korea 1279-1368 C.E. Yuan Dynasty (Mongol) rules China 1600 C.E. Tokugawa Shogunate founded Western Europe Causes of the Renaissance
The Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople preserved Greek ideas during the Dark Ages
Scrolls of Aristotle, Socrates, and other Classical writers
1453 Constantinople fell to Muslims: scholars fled to Western Europe w/ Greek scrolls (mostly to Italy
The invention of the printing press
1440 printing press invented: allow scrolls to be printed
ideas shared and spread rapidly
The rise of a Middle Class in Europe
Began to focus more on self-improvement, the world, and education
Emphasized that man was created in God’s image
The middle class became market for classical books Humanism
Literature Scientific Revolution Developments in math and science based in Greek mathematics that had been preserved and built upon by Muslim scientists in the 13th century
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) - English mathematician shaped many modern fields of science
mathematical laws for the force of gravity, made discoveries regarding the nature of light, and built on earlier Indian and Arab ideas for algebra 17th century - Scientific Revolution applied to social and political areas of life - Enlightenment
human reason that discovered laws of science could also discover the laws that governed social and political behavior THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
Catholic Church - important societal force in medieval Europe: from 1450 to 1750 lost significant power (scientists and literary writers challenge the church, Pope's political power compromised by centralization of government & the Protestant Reformation led by Martin Luther)
Martin Luther displayed the 95 Theses (95 problems with church practices)
Excommunicated from the church
Writings were widely accepted in Germany
John Calvin started yet another branch of Protestantism called Calvinism
King Henry VIII of England separated religious institutions in his kingdom from the church
16th century, large parts of Europe, particularly in Germany and Britain, no longer under the Catholic Church
Europe deeply divided between Protestants and Catholics Rise of Capitalism in Western Europe
Capitalism - economic system with a division between labor and ownership. The people whose labor creates wealth are not the investors or owners of the raw materials and machinery (means of production). Therefore, the wealth created by labor goes not to the worker but to the capitalist (investor-owner)
Joint stock companies of Britain and the Netherlands (the East India Company and the VOC) - pull together the resources of investors to pay for a voyage to the Spice Islands of Southeast Asia
Early Capitalism: Proto-industrialization
Putting-out system
production moved to the countryside (outsourcing).

Social results
Introduced large sums of money into the countryside; the material standards of life Increased
The nuclear family became more economically independent
Commercialization and inflation caused significant changes - Individuals who invested gained at the expense of others who simply possessed property 1300-1450 Italian Renaissance 1450-1519 Leonardo da Vinci 1450-1600 Northern Renaissance 1490s France and Spain invade Italian city-states; beginnning of Italian decline 1517 Luther's 95 theses; Beginning of Protestant reformation 1534 Beginning of Church of England 1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada 1688-1690 Glorious revolution in Britain; parliamentary monarchy 1756-1763 Seven Year's War; France, Britain, Prussia, and Austria 1792 Validiction of the Rights of Women Russia Russia under control of the Mongols: tributary feudal state with Moscow as location for tribute payments
Isolated Russia from many of the advancements made in Western Europe
Moscow became bureaucratic center of the Russian Orthodox Church
Mongols enlisted Russian princes around Moscow to aid in the collection of tributary payments; strengthened the Duchy of Moscow and gave them the administrative experience
Duchy of Moscow spearheaded the struggle for independence (1450-1480)
Began to greatly expand territory
Ivan III (Ivan the Great)
Proclaimed Moscow the “Third Rome” (Constantinople had been the “Second Rome
Increased the power of the central Russian government and territory

Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
Defeated the Kazan Khanate - a Mongol empire
Had many of the boyars (aristocrats) killed
Tsars in Russia would become true autocrats

Peter the Great
Military reform
Offered better pay and drafted peasants for service
Created a navy by importing western engineers and craftsmen
Gunpowder Empire developed better weapons and military skills.
Building the infrastructure - The army was useless without roads and communications, so Peter organized peasants to work on roads and do other service for the government.
Expansion of territory
Gained Russian territory along the Baltic Sea by defeating the powerful Swedish military
Reorganization of the bureaucracy - The bureaucracy controlled by merit based employees by creating the Table of Ranks, doing away with titles of nobility.
Relocation of the capital - Peter moved capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg 1462 Russia freed from Tartars by Ivan III 1480 Moscow region freed; Russian expansion presses south 1533-1584 Ivan IV; boyar power reduced 1604-1613 Time of Troubles 1613-1917 Romanov Dynasty 1689-1725 Peter the Great 1703 Founding of St. Petersburg 1762-1796 Catherine the Great 1773-1775 Pugachev revolt 1772,1793,1795 Partition of Poland 1785 Law enacted tightening landlord power over serfs follwed the death of Ivan IV (no heir)
boyars tried to reestablish power
ends with Michael Romanov becoming tsar in 1613 German born
Ruled after assasination of her husband
Accepted Western influence Emelian Pugachev, a cossack, claims to be legitimate tsar and challenges Catherine the Great Poland is dived among Russia, Prussia, and Austria 1500 C.E. Colonization of the New World Political unification in Iberia.
Castile and Aaragon united through marriage
Last Muslim stronghold of Granada conquered in 1492
Encomienda system - gave rights to work the local population to any Spaniard who conquered Moorish lands (later introduced in the New World)
Spain had bureaucracy
King worked with the church (pope intervenes in disputes)
The Treaty of Tordesillas divided land claims in the New World between Spain and Portugal Conquest
1493 Spanish started the colony of Hispaniola, then Puerto Rico and Cuba
Cortes conquered the Aztecs with 600 men - declared it New Spain and Mexico City was constructed on the site of the Aztec capital.
Pizarro conquered Inca and moved capital closer to the coast, named Lima
Reasons for Spanish success
Mita system established in Peru: conquered people send laborers to work on state projects, mostly silver mines
Haciendas - estates established by Spainards: produced many crops and supported a new aristocratic class of Spaniards in the New World The Spanish colonial system
New Spain and New Castile integrated into Catholic Church and Spanish bureaucracy
Viceroy - appointed to be the king’s overseer in colonies; activities were reviewed by courts in Spain
The king often funded ventures in the New World (20% of gold or silver to king)
Spanish and Portuguese: language of government, business, and society
The church and its bureaucracy woven into colonial governments
A hierarchical class system emerged:
Peninsulares (Europeans born in Spain)
creoles (Europeans born in the Americas)
mestizos (blend of European and Amerindian)
mulattoes (blend of European and African)
full blood natives and Africans

Settler colonies of North America
1600s the English, Dutch and French establish colonies in North America
Primarily not funded by royal backing (paid for by private investors)
Created their own assemblies of self government through which they chose their own local leaders
Investment companies and the government worked together
Took land of nomadic native north Americans; Europeans deforested land and began agriculture
Women migrated from France and England to the colonies in the New World: little interaction between white men and native women - no significant hybrid race Continued to push the natives westward
First African slaves arrived in Virginia in 1619. 1493-1520 Settlement in Caribbean 1494 Treay of Tordesillar 1500 Cabral in Brazil 1519-1524 Cortes leads conquest of Mexico 1630-1654 Dutch capture NE Brazil 1763 Brazilain capital moved to Rio de Janeiro Muslim Gunpowder Empires The Ottoman Empire: Hungary, Anatolia, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, and Yemen
The Safavids: Persia and Afghanistan
The Mughals: India
Possessed great military and political power & produced an artistic and cultural renaissance
Each possessed religious fervor and zeal for conversion
Built empires through military conquest based on firearms
Ruled by an absolute monarch
The Ottomans (Sunni) ruled a mixture of Muslims and Christians
The Safavids (Shi'a) ruled mostly Muslims
The Mughals (Sunni) ruled mostly non-Muslim peoples The Ottomans
Turkic people entered Anatolia after the Mongols defeated the Seljuks of eastern Anatolia in the mid-13th century
Under Mehmed II they captured Constantinople in 1453 and ended the Byzantine Empire
Spread into Syria, Egypt, & North Africa
Navy dominated the eastern Mediterranean
Military leaders had dominant role in the Ottoman state
Imperial armies dominated by Janissary infantry divisions; by the mid-16th century they intervened in dynastic succession disputes
As the empire grew, sultans lost contact with their subjects - large bureaucracy headed by a vizier had power in the state
The imperial capital at Constantinople: combined the cultures under Ottoman rule - became the commercial center dealing in products from Asia, Africa, and Europe
Ottoman Decline
17th century: Empire was too large to be
Bureaucracy became corrupt
Oppressed peasants and laborers fled the land or rebelled
Sultans and their sons were confined to the palace; became weak rulers managed by court factions
Reasons for Ottoman decline:
1) The conservativism of the Janissaries
Rejected any new advancement in military control that would jeopardize their rule
2) The voyage of Vasco da Gama
Opened up trade routes that did not include the Ottomans as middlemen between the Far East and Europe
3) Their rejection of non-Muslim culture and knowledge
Prevented them from benefiting from European advancements in science and technology
The Safavids
Shi'a Muslims from a family of Sufi preachers and mystics
14th century: under Sail al-Din they fought to purify and spread Islam among Turkic peoples
1501 Ismâ'il seized Tabriz and was proclaimed Shah
Followers conquered most of Persia and fought against Ottomans (defeated them at the battle of Chaldiran in 1514; demonstrated that firearms were decisive factor in warfare) - Shi'ism was blocked from further westward advance.
Persian, after Chaldiran, became the language of state
The initial militant Shi'ite ideology was modified as the Safavids drew Persian religious scholars into the bureaucracy
Safavid Decline
Abbas I, fearing plots, removed all suitable heirs; began a process of dynastic decline
1772 Isfahan fell to Afghani invaders
The Mughals
1526 Turkic invaders, led by Babur, invaded India after being driven from Afghanistan
1526-1527 Babur's forces w/ military tactics and technology similar to the Ottomans crushed the Muslim Lodi dynasty at Panipat and defeated a Hindu confederation at Khanua
His sudden death in 1530 brought invasion from surrounding enemies
Babur's successor, Humayn, fled to Persia and led successful return invasions into India that restored control in the north by 1556
Humayn's son, Akbar had to face pressure enemies, Akbar and his advisors defeated them
Mughal conquests in north and central India
Akbar supported locals: he encouraged intermarriage, abolished head taxes, and respected Hindu religious customs and, Hindus rose to high ranks in the administration
The 17th century rulers Jahangir and Shah Jahan continued the policy of tolerance toward Hindus
Expanded painting workshops and great architectural works blending the best in Persian and Hindu traditions
Shah Jahan’s Taj Mahal
Nur Jahan, Jahangir's wife, dominated the empire for a time through her faction
Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan. also amassed power
1243 Mongol invasion of Asia Minor 1281 Founding of the Ottoman Empire 1350s Ottoman invasion of Europe; conquest of Balkans and Hungary 1453 Ottoman capture of Constaninople 1501-1510 Safavid conquest of Persia 1507 Portuguese victory over Ottoman-Arab fleet at Diu 1514 Ottoman victory over Safavids at Chaldiran 1517 Ottoman capture of Syria and Egypt 1526 Battle of Panipat; Babu's conquest of India 1529 1st Ottoman seige of Vienna 1571 Battle of Lepanto 1683 Last Ottoman seige of Vienna 1680s Rajput and peasant revolts in North India 1699 Treaty of Carlowitz; Ottomans cede territories in Europe 1722 Fall of Safavid Dynasty 1600 C.E. 1700 C.E. Japan Japan's Reunification
16th century: Nobunaga, one of the first daimyos to make extensive use of firearms, rose to the forefront among the contesting lords
Killed the last Ashikaga shogun in 1573, but was killed in 1582 before finishing his conquests
Nobunaga's general Toyotomo Hideyoshi continued the struggle and became master of Japan by 1590
Hideyoshi then launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea and died in 1598
Tokugawa Ieyasu won contest for succession
1603 - Appointed shogun; Tokugawas in power for two and one-half centuries
Ieyasu ruled from Edo (Tokyo) and directly controlled central Honshu
European Challenge
European traders and missionaries visit Japan 1543
The traders exchanged Asian and European goods (firearms, clocks, and printing presses, for Japanese silver, copper, and artisan products)
Firearms, which the Japanese soon manufactured themselves, revolutionized local warfare Roman Catholic missionaries arrived during Nobunaga's campaigns
Protected them as counterforce to his Buddhist opponents
Jesuits by the 1580s claimed hundreds of thousands of converts
Hideyoshi was less tolerant of Christianity - feared that Europeans might try to conquer Japan Isolation
1580s Official measures to restrict foreign influence
1614 Christianity was officially banned
Ieyasu and his successors broadened the campaign to isolate Japan from outside influences
1616 merchants were confined to a few cities
1630 Japanese ships could not sail overseas
1640s only Dutch and Chinese ships visited Japan to trade at Deshima island (city of Nagaski)

1573 End of the Ashikaga Shogunate 1580s Jesuits arrive in China 1590 Hideyoshi unfies Japan 1592 1st Japanese invasion of Korea 1597 2nd Japanese invasion of Korea 1603 Tokugawa Shogunate established 1614 Chrisitianity banned in Japan 1640 Japan moves into Self-imposed isolation 1755-1757 Dutch become paramount power in Java The Modern Period
1750-1914 C.E. Industialization and Imperialism in the West 1800 C.E. Industialization and Imperialism in the East The Industrial Revolution
Began in England in the late 18th century and spread during the 19th century to Belgium, Germany, Northern France, the United States, and Japan
England's translated into economic prowess and political power allowing colonization of other lands = worldwide British Empire

An Agricultural Revolution
Beginning in 1700s, wealthy landowners began to enlarge their farms for experiments with new techniques of farming
Improved crop rotation methods, bred better livestock, and invented new machines
Better nutrition boosted England's population, creating necessary component for the Industrial Revolution: labor
A technological revolution
Mass production, mechanization, and interchangeable parts
Machinery to speed up human labor, and interchangeable parts meant that machines were more practical and easier to repair
Natural resources
Large and accessible supplies of coal and iron
Economic strength
Built many of the economic practices and structures necessary for economic expansion: middle class with experience with trading and manufacturing goods
Banks - well established and provided loans for businessmen to invest in new machinery and expand their operations
Political stability
Political development stable
Many wars during the 1700s but none of them took place on British soil
1750 Parliament's power exceeded that of the king, and passed laws that protected business and helped expansion IMPERIALISM
European nations set out to build empires all over the world
Driven by the need to provide raw materials for their industrial capacity, and the types of goods exchanged were determined by that need
Types of imperialism in the 1800s included:
Colonial imperialism
Complete takeover of an area, with domination in all areas: economic, political, and socio-cultural
Almost all of Africa and southern and southeast Asia were colonized
Economic imperialism
Allowed the area to operate as its own nation, but the imperialist nation almost completely controlled its trade and other business
China and most of Latin America were subjected to economic imperialism
Political imperialism
Although a country may have had its own government with natives in top political positions, it operated as the imperialist country told it to
Qing China and the Dominican Republic
Socio-cultural imperialism
The dominating country deliberately tried to change customs, religions and languages in some of the countries
The influence of the Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment - philosophical and political ideas were begun to seriously question the assumptions of absolute governments
Invited people to use their "reason" using the same humanistic approach of Renaissance times
New wealth of the bourgeoisie
Middle class grew in size and wealth, but not in political power
Sought political power to match the economic power that they had gained Revolutions THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
American colonists resisted Britain's attempt to impose new taxes and trade after the French and Indian War ended in 1763
Colonial leaders set up a new government and issued the Declaration of Independence in 1776
The United States Constitution was based on enlightenment principles, with three branches of government that check and balance one another
Revolution in France - a civil war, a rising against the Ancient Regime, or the old kingdom that had risen over centuries
Nobility and clergy had many privileges that no one else had
Social classes: the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else
Revolution in 1789 because the growing class of the bourgeoisie had no political privileges
Reasons for the Revolution: nobles' refusal to pay taxes, bourgeoisie resentment of the king, Louis Vic's incompetence, and a series of bad harvests
Bourgeoisie seized control and declared the creation of the National Assembly, a legislative body
Wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen and a Constitution for France
Government taken over by the Jacobins, a radical group that sought equality through executing those that disagreed with the government -The Reign of Terror - lasted for two years
The Jacobin leaders eventually guillotined and the country was taken by Napoleon Bonaparte
1812 the French Empire dominated Europe to the borders of Russia
Invasion of Russia was unsuccessful b/c of cold winters, long supply lines, and Tsar Alexander's burn and retreat method - left French armies without food
Alliance of European countries defeated Napoleon in 1815 at Waterloo
France was a problem that had to be contained before ideas and actions spread
Congress of Vienna in 1815: a peace settlement making further revolutions impossible
Controlled by: Britain, Austria, and Russia
British wanted to destroy the French war machine
Russia wanted to establish an alliance based on Christianity
Austria wanted a return to absolutism
Decided to restore balance of power in Europe
Monarchies - including the monarchy in France - were restored in countries that Napoleon had conquered
France was "ringed" with strong countries by its borders to keep its military in check.
The Concert of Europe was formed, an organization of European states meant to maintain the balance of power.
Haiti – slave revolt in1791 led to years of civil war (French abolished slavery in 1793) Haiti declared its independence in 1804

Brazil - Portugal's royal family fled to Brazil when Napoleon invaded Iberian Peninsula. The king instituted reforms in administration, agriculture, and manufacturing and returned to Portugal in 1821 leaving Brazil in control of his son Pedro. Pedro declared Brazil's independence and established a constitutional monarchy - lasted until the late 19th century: Pedro II was overthrown by republicans

Mexico - Father Miguel Hidalgo led Mexico's rebellion - independence in 1821, he was executed for leading a rebellion against the colonial government. The Creole elite then took up independence movement. Independence won under Agustin de Iturbide, proclaimed Emperor

Spanish South America - Colonial elite led rebellion. The term "junta" came to be used for these local governments who wanted to overthrow colonial powers. Two junta centers in South America were:
1. Caracas, Venezuela - Simon de Bolivar, a charismatic military leader with a vision of forging "Gran Columbia," an independent, giant empire in the northern part of South America. However, regional differences caused the newly independent lands to split into several countries.
2. Buenos Aires, Argentina - Jose de San Martin, a charismatic military leader, combined Chilean, Argentine, and Peruvian forces which later split along regional differences. Abolishment of Slavery: Britain in 1807, the United States in 1808, France in 1814, the Netherlands in 1817, and Spain in 1845 Atlantic Slave Trade
European powers trade goods and weapons to Coastal West African Tribes in return for slaves
Slaves Exported to Americas for plantations (sugar, coffee, and cotton) and mines (silver, and gold)
Raw materials traded to Europe to fund industrialization process 1730 Massive population rise 1770 Steam engine; beginning of Industrial Revolution 1776-1783 American Revolutionary War 1789-1799 French Revolution 1799-1815 Regin of Napoleon 1820 Rise of liberalism and nationalism 1846-1848 Mexican-American War 1879-1907 Alliance System 1879: Germany-Austria
1881: Germany-Austria-Russia
1882: Germany-Italy-Austria
1891: France-Russia
1904: Britain-France
1907: Britain-Russia 1914 World War I 1889 Fall of Brazilian Empire; establishment of republic 1829 Mexican independence 1822 Brazilian independence The Ottoman Empire
Damaged by Vasco da Gama’s discovery of an alternate trade route around Africa and the loss of Greece, Serbia, and Egypt
Capitulations: unequal trading agreements with the western Europeans
Reform blocked by corruption and the Janissaries
Mahmud II - western European-inspired military and educational reforms creating own army to kill Janissaries
1839-1876 - Tanzimat or “reorganization” era: legal reform based on the French model
Sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876–1909) - suspended constitution and ruled despotically but built railroads and continued to modernize the army and educational system
Young Turks dethroned Abd al-Hamid II and pushed for a program for universal suffrage, equality before the law, freedom of religion, free public education, secularization of the state, and the emancipation of women The Russian Empire
Crimean War (1854-1856) – Russian loss to Britain and France displayed weakness
Emancipation of the serfs (1861) – reform instituted by Alexander II; serfs were required to make redemption payments to their landlords, intended to maintain the aristocracy as privileged class
Zemstvos (district assemblies) and judicial reform brought some improvements
Minister of finance Sergei Witte - pushing for industrial expansion and the construction of the trans-Siberian railway
1881 - Alexander II assassinated by a faction of the Land and Freedom Party The Chinese Empire
Opium War (1839–1842) – between Brtitish and Qing China to protect British trade in opium and ended with the Treaty of Nanjing (gave British control over Hong Kong)
Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) – led by Hong Xiuguan, sought to overthrow Qing Dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar-gentry
Self-Strengthening Movement - combine Chinese cultural traditions with European technology was met with imperial opposition
Qing Empire lost control of lands (Burma, Vietnam, Korea) to more powerful competitors
Hundred Days Reforms (1898) - Emperor Guangxu’s reform acts - Cixi imprisoned emperor and stopped the reforms
Boxer Rebellion (1898) – aimed at expelling foreigners from China; failed due to Western intervention

The Transformation of Japan
1840s - Mizuno Takakuni calls for reform
1853 - Commodore Perry forces Japanese cooperation; highlights need for reform
1868 - Fukuzawa Yukichi and Ito Hirobumi create Meiji Restoration: designed to copy some aspects of western European and American achievements (Industrialization)
Meiji leaders abolished the old feudal order, revamped the tax system, and remodeled the economy
The Japanese army and navy were modernized and restructured, and embarked on western-style imperialistic expansion (victories in Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars) 1826 Ottoman Janissary corps destroyed 1839-1841 Opium War 1839-1876 Tanzimat reforms 1854-1856 Crimean War 1876 Constitution for Ottoman Empire 1898-1901 Boxer Rebellion and 100 Days of Reform 1908 Young Turks seize power in Istanbul 1853 Perry expedition to Edo Bay 1861 Russian Emancipation of Serfs 1868-1912 Meiji Period 1917 Revolution and Bolshevik victory The 20th Century
1914-Present 1900 C.E. World War I Causes
Nationalism - 19th century national identities intensified greatly
National rivalries - competition in: industrialization, a naval race, arms build-ups, and colonial disputes over territories
Nationalist aspirations - self-determination: the right to form states based on ethnicity, language, and/or political ideals - unification of Germany and
Entangling Alliances - The two major alliances:
Triple Entente (Russia , England , and France)
Triple Alliance ( Germany , Austria-Hungary , and Italy )
June 1914 - Gavrilo Princip, a member of a Serbian nationalist group known as the Black Hand assassinated Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, who had an alliance with Russia. Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, requiring Germany to declare war on Russia

The war was fought on two fronts:
Western Front - between France and Germany through Belgium. French and British joined by Americans in 1917 fought against the Germans
Eastern Front - opposite side of Germany. Germany and Austria-Hungary fought Russia. The Central Powers overran Serbia, Albania, and Romania. The Russians took the offensive in Prussia, but by the summer of 1915 Germany and Austrian forces drove the Russia back into Russia.
Russia withdrew from the war in 1917
Armistice occurring in November 1918
Led by: David Lloyd George from Britain, Georges Clemenceau from France, and Woodrow Wilson from the United States
British and French wanted revenge and control of Germay
Woodrow Wilson’s plan, the Fourteen Points, was grounded in two important principles:
Self determination - need to redraw the map of Europe along the lines of self determination, allowing groups based on nationalism to determine their own governments
The need for an international peace organization - advocated a worldwide organization charged with keeping the peace and avoiding another war
The treaty resulted in a compromise:
Germany lost land along all borders
Germany had to pay very high reparations for war
The League of Nations was created
Germany's overseas possessions placed under control of the League
The map of Eastern Europe was redrawn along ethnic lines
Ottoman Empire dismantled and designated as mandates, not independent countries
1914-1918 WWI 1917 U.S. enters WWI 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; Russia withdraws from war 1919 Versailles conference and treaty; League of Nations established 1920 French and British mandates set up Middle East 1923 Treaty of Lausanne recognizes independence of Turkey World War II THE ROOTS OF WORLD WAR II

The Meiji Restoration of the late 19th century had greatly strengthened Japan militarily, politically, and economically. Japan's influence along the Pacific Rim grew.
In 1937, they began a full-scale invasion of China, and rapidly began to control more and more of the mainland.

Italian government had suffered a coup led by Benito Mussolini who wished to rebuild the Ancient Rome through his military leadership. Also there was a Nazi movement in Germany, led by an Austrian named Adolf Hitler.
Adolf Hitler attracted attention as the leader of the German Socialist Workers Party and established the Reichstag, and eventually appointed chancellor. His Nazi state was authoritarian and militaristic, and expansionistic.
Germany began claiming territory unfairly taken from them by the Versailles Treaty.
Eventually attacked Czechoslovakia
The Munich Agreement (1938) - England and France called a meeting with Hitler

Allied Powers (Britain, France, Russia and the United States)
Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan)
Worldwide participation
Fighting in "theatres" or "arenas"
Technology (airplanes and tanks)
Widespread killing of civilians - deliberate targeting of non-military people (Genocide) THE COURSE OF THE WAR
Hitler used a war technique called blitzkrieg (lightning war) to quickly conquer Poland, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and France.
Bombing civilian targets and rapidly moving troops, tanks, and mechanized carriers.
1940 - Only Britain resisted German attack
Russia entered on the Allied side in 1941 and Germans suffered first defeat in Stalingrad in 1942
1941 - Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, causing the United States to enter the war
U.S. fought in both Europe and the Pacific
The European Arena - began in northern Africa: combined Allied forces defeated the German forces. Allies attacked, defeated, and occupied Italy. In 1944, Allied forces crossed the English Channel in the famous "D-Day" assault on Normandy - led to the liberation of France. From there, Allies attacked across Belgium into western Germany and eventually joined Russian forces
The Pacific Arena - Japan and the United States fought a great sea-air naval. Ended with Japanese surrender after the United States dropped atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.

The United Nations
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1931 Japan invades Manchuria 1933 Nazi's gain power in Germany 1941-1945 WWII Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 1945 Atomic bomb dropped on Japan; UN established 1947 Cold War begins John Aya Honors World History Seminar 1W
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