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The Rate of Oxygen Consumption During Cellular Respiration

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Grace Horner

on 19 October 2012

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Transcript of The Rate of Oxygen Consumption During Cellular Respiration

The Rate of Cellular Respiration in Germinating Peas
Grace Horner
Chamiande Julienne High School
ABSTRACT

The purpose of this experiment was to learn how to use a respirometer and how different temperatures affect the rate of oxygen consumption. A total of nine respirometers were used to compare hot, cold and room temperature and the rates of the oxygen consumption associated with each differing temperature. The results for the experiment were inaccurate, what should have happened was that the hot water had the highest rate of respiration. This inaccurate results show that the experiment was somehow preformed incorrectly and a large mistake was made. The results that should have occurred would have shown that plants need warm but not hot environments to reach homeostasis. INTRODUCTION/Background Information
This experiment was performed to test the rate of cellular respiration in germinating pea seeds compared to that of non-germinating pea seeds and the control material; glass beads. Previous to the experiment it was taught that cellular respiration is the process where O2 enters the mitochondria and drives the process. The electrons enter the protein complex and produces pyruvates, NAD+ and ATP. The electrons then fall down the electron transport chain and enter a second protein complex and that force drives H+ ions across their gradient and the result is water which then splits and enters the Calvin Cycle where the H+ ion enters ATP synthase and ultimately produces ATP.
In this experiment, using a respirometer, the students were able to measure the rate at which oxygen was consumed which shows how fast the germinating peas were respiring. To show the rate of respiration, respirometers are set into a tub of water and then as the water goes into the tube, this shows that the amount of oxygen is going down because the amount of volume previously occupied is lower therefore allowing more water into the tube. The equation PV=nRT was essential to this experiment. This shows that as the temperature goes up the volume goes down, as the pressure goes up the volume goes up; these important environmental factors made the control necessary because this shows changes in the environment that effect the other respirometers.
Another experiment that used data like this one was a study on the Germination, Respiration, and Adenylate Energy Charge of Seeds at Various Oxygen Partial Pressures by Al-Ani, Bruzau, Raymond, Saint-Ges, and Pradet. This study discussed how the changes in the environment effected the energy of seeds but the same concept of PV=nRT applies and the process of cellular respiration is a factor. Through the study of this article and previous knowledge it can be concluded that: the glass beads will have no change in percentage of atmospheric O2, the germinating peas will use cellular respiration more than the non-germinating peas and therefore consume more oxygen, but the chloroplasts may produce some O2 through photosynthesis, and the non-germinating peas will slowly, if at all, consume oxygen as time increases because the cells are dehydrated, finally, a dark room with slow the rate of cellular respiration because some of the process is driven by photosynthesis which is dependent on light.
The germinating peas will use cellular respiration more than the non-germinating peas and therefore consume more oxygen, but the chloroplasts may produce some O2 through photosynthesis.

This graph shows that the germinating peas had high rates of respiration than the non-germinating peas, temperature being irrelevant in this context.















Materials
100 small glass beads
25 germinating peas
60 dried peas
3 O2 consumption sensors
3 beakers (fit to sensors)
Absorbent cotton balls
Non-absorbent cotton balls
KOH
Pipets
Forceps
Computer
3 Graduated Cylinders
Distilled Water
As temperature increases, so does cellular respiration?

This graphs shows the opposite of the predicted results.









REFERENCES
A Ooten, personal communication, October 18, 2012.
Campbell, N.A., & Reece J.B. (2005). AP edition: biology. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings
Pradet, A., Bruzau, F., Al-Ani, A., Raymond, P., Saint-Ges, V., & Leblanc, J. M. (n.d.). Germination, Respiration, and Adenylate Energy Charge of Seeds at Various Oxygen Partial Pressures . Plant Physiology . Retrieved October 18, 2012, from http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/79/3/885.short
The College Board. (2012). AP biology investigative labs: an inquiry-based approach. New York, NY.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank Mrs. Ooten for her support and guidance throughout all of their lab procedures. Without her generosity and established ability to communicate her vast knowledge and true enthusiasm for biology we could not have successfully completed this lab.
We would also like to thank the class for not spontaneously combusting any materials or persons in the lab, we like our class very much and any harm done to any individual would severely handicap our ability to work as unphased individuals as well as a well oiled biological machine. Thank you Chaminade Julienne’s 2nd period AP biology class of 2012/2013.
Discussion
The data for this experiment did not match the information taught in class and therefore the data shown is incorrect. It was unclear why the data did not match the information taught and it was also unclear why the experiment was inconclusive. What should have happened was that the germinating seed should have had the highest rate of oxygen consumption followed by the non-germinating seeds and then control should not have moved at all. In the colder temperatures, the rate of respiration increases because the germinating pea is working much harder to maintain the temperature that allows it to reach homeostasis. The warmer temperatures should have gotten similar results. The room temperature should have shown the least amount of change because the seeds work less hard to maintain a good temperature at room temperature. For previous experiments the issue would need to identified before suggesting improvements on future experiments. One error identified was not enough KOH was added, for future experiments try two or three mL. Conclusion
In conclusion, this experiment showed that as temperature decreases, the rate of cellular respiration increases. The hypothesis was incorrect because it stated that as temperature increased, the rate of cellular respiration would also increase. QUESTIONS TO ANSWER
1. PV=nRT: There is no way to control pressure on earth. The volume was the variable that was supposed to be changing. R is already a constant. N is controllable because the number of moles can be set for any substance. Temperature can be controlled but it must be carefully maintained. The temperature was the only variable that was able to be actively controlled for this experiment.
2. From your graph, calculate the rate of oxygen consumption for each treatment:
a. Germ at room temp: 0.0008
b. Germ at colder temp: 0.032
c. Germ at warmer temp: -0.0016
d. Non Germ at room temp: -0.0008
e. Nongerm at colder temp:0.0004
f. Nongerm at warmer temp: -0.0004

3. Expected results would be that the mammal would have higher rates of respiration at both temperatures because they are trying much harder to maintain a good internal body temperature while the reptile can just change with the temperature there for respiring less.
4. At 10C the mammal would be respiring much harder than at 21C because at 10C its enzymes are coming much closer to being denatured than they are at 21C Methods
1. Measure 25mL of distilled water in a graduated cylinder
2. Add 25 germinating peas
3. Measure new water level and record
4. Take KOH and soak the absorbent cotton ball using 1 mL
5. Repeat step 4 two more times
6. Add KOH soaked cotton ball to each beaker
7. Add non-absorbent cotton to cover KOH cotton in each beaker
8. Using a new graduated cylinder, measure 25mL of distilled water
9. Add non-germinating peas until this water level matches that of the germinating peas
10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 using the glass beads
11. Carefully drain each graduated cylinder of the distilled water
12. Add the contents into of graduated cylinders into prepared beakers
13. Place O2 sensors on each beaker
14. Wait 25 minutes
15. Record data
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