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Unit 5: Lecture 1

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Dustin Harrison

on 28 June 2015

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Transcript of Unit 5: Lecture 1

Revolutions & Independence Movements
These movements will result a new identity of NATION for many parts of the world.
These independence movements will spread to all parts of the globe.
Latin America
Summarize the independence movements in North America, France, Haiti, & Latin America
Identify similarities and differences between them
Explain their significance
Higher Level Questioning
Compare/contrast the independence movements in North America, France, Haiti, and Latin America.
Analyze the continuities and changes that resulted from these independence movements.
North America
7 Years' War: 1756 - 1763 (First Global War)
France vs GB: started in Europe and spread to North America
France + Native Americans vs British + Colonists
Spread to India: where both fought with their Indian allies
Disaster for France: lost in all 3 areas
lost Canadian territory & trading areas in India
Britain's Empire in Americas seemed secure
But war was $
Dealing with debt caused chain of events that deteriorated relations between crown in London and subjects in Americas
Crown: colonists should pay a portion of costs bc the war protected colonial interests
Taxes (stamp, sugar, tea, etc) - even though colonists weren't represented in Parliament
"No taxation without ___________"
1774 - Continental Congress organized colonial resistance
1775 - British and American militia clashed in Lexington, MA
4th of July (1776) - Declaration of Independence (inspired by Enlightenment) - justified independence
"All men are created equal"
1781 - British surrendered to G-Dub
1783 - Peace of Paris recognized American independence
Colonies created a republic of 13 states & a constitution that guaranteed freedom of speech & religion
Reality: no legal and political equality
Only men of property enjoyed full rights
Landless men, women, slaves, and natives didn't have access to these rights
YET, this was an important step in the development of a government responsible to its people

Just the Tip of the Iceberg!
America wanted to self-govern; France wanted to replace the "old order" with new political, social, and cultural structures
Causes of discontent:
large war debts = high taxes on peasants
increasing gaps between rich & poor
King Louis XVI forced to call the Estates General in hopes of raising taxes
3rd Estate further divided into 3 subdivisions
No voice in government
Peasant/serfs = majority
Townsfolk - worked in cities
Merchants/bankers = bourgeoisie (wealthiest - leaders of the Third Estate)
All wanted some equality
Estates General convened in 1789 = deadlock in voting
Typically, 1st & 2nd Estate always won the vote with 2/3 majority
This time, 3rd Estate demanded votes count per head
3rd Estate declared themselves the National Assembly
Storming of Bastille
Began making reforms: Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
Enlightenment ideals
New constitution - replaced monarchy with limited monarchy
Not enough for French radicals (Jacobins) who took control of the Assembly
Committee for Public Safety now governed France
Led by Maximilien Robespierre - "Reign of Terror"
Executed many aristocrats
Eventually, the revolution turned on the radicals that started it
Thrust France into war with the powers of Europe
Austria, Britain, & Russia combined to defeat France and end Revolution
France needed protecting...
Napoleon (First Consul > Emperor)
created a large army
issued his Civil Code - political and legal equality of all adult men
est. a merit-based society & protected private property
However, also limited free speech & allowed censorship
Success! - Napoleon defeats many European powers and took control of most of Europe (1803-1814)
BUT... too many enemies - Russian campaign proved fatal in winter
Congress of Vienna (1815) - restored monarchy
Island of Hispaniola
French West: Saint Domingue & Spanish East: Saint Domingo
Major center for sugar - high mortality rate
Population of Saint Domingue
40,000 white French settlers
30,000 free people of color
500,000 black slaves (most born in Africa)
? - maroons (escaped slaves)
French Government sent about 800 free people of color to fight in the American Revolution
they returned with ideas about reforming society
When French Revolution broke out in 1789, white settlers sought the right govern themselves
BUT, opposed extending political/legal equality to the gens de couleur
During the civil war, slave revolt occurred (1791)
French troops (and later, British & Spanish troops) invaded the island in hopes of gaining control
Toussaint Louverture - leader of slaves
built strong, disciplined army - took control of most of Saint Domingue
1801 - constitution written: granted equality & citizenship to all
1803 - independence declared: Haiti
second independent republic in Western Hemisphere, and first to abolish slavery
Economic difficulties after independence
Many nations (such as the US) refused to recognize or trade with Haiti due to slave emancipation
New nation of small farmers not as productive as former large-scale plantation economy
Colonies controlled by Spanish & Portuguese
Peninsulares (governing class) = 30,000
Creoles (wealthy class) = 3.5 million
Less Privileged (mixed/indigenous/slaves) = 10 million
Creoles upset administrative control & economic regulation
Sought to displace peninsulares
Jamaica Letter - written by Simon Bolivar
Similar to Declaration of Independence & Decl. of Rights of Man (rooted in Enlightenment ideals)
Napoleon - invasions of Spain & Portugal in 1807
Weakened their authority in colonies
By 1810 - REVOLTS began
Mexico - peasant rebellion led by Father Miguel Hidalgo
conservative creole forces gained control of the movement
South America - Simon Bolivar deposed Spanish armies by 1824
Brazil - Portuguese royal family fled there when Napoleon invaded
King returned to Portugal in 1821 - left son, Pedro in charge
Pedro agreed to demands of creoles and declared Brazil independent
Result: creoles became dominant class and many peninsulares returned to Europe
society remained very stratified & slavery continued
lower classes continued to be repressed
Catholic Church remained dominant
Full transcript