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Social Media During Times of Disaster
Transcript of Social Media During Times of Disaster
& Tsunami Conclusions Location: Port-au-Prince, Haiti
More than 70% living on less than $2/day
86% living in slum conditions
Date: January 12, 2010
Event: Devastating 7.0 M earthquake
More than 52 aftershocks 3,500,000 people were affected
220,000+ people estimated dead
300,000+ people injured
180,000+ houses damaged
105,000 house destroyed
1.5 million left homeless Impact of Earthquake A. Information Sharing
1. Citizens (Global and Local)
B. Emergency Support
2. Citizens (Global and Local) Twitter was the primary place people around the world turned to interact with others regarding the earthquake.
2.3 million tweets included “#Haiti” or “#HelpHaiti” Information Sharing Global Citizens Examples Information Sharing Disaster survivors used social media to tell their story and share valuable information about what was going on "at the scene." Information Sharing 'News' was the dominant type on both Facebook (77.6%) and Twitter (87.6%).
People didn't turn to Twitter to obtain news about the disaster.
Instead, the public turned to traditional media for disaster information.
HOWEVER, traditional media outlets turned to social media to get information.
Reporters lost power when trying to file traditional stories; instead turned to Twitter to communicate the scale of the destruction to a wide audience. Examples CNN.com monitoring tweets from Haiti and listed most notable comments.
The BBC offered live updates including statements from political leaders, tweets from those directly affected by the quake, and additional pictures.
The Wall Street Journal offered slide shows of pictures of the devastation taken by individuals on the ground.
The Web site digiphile used search technology to relay posts on Twitter feeds from people within 50 miles of quake.
One photo was of a devastated building that was soon featured on the home pages of CNN.com, NPR.org, and LATimes.com. Information Sharing Social media tools, significantly Twitter and Facebook are playing a major role in communicating information about efforts.
The State Department began sharing information on its official Facebook pages hours after the earthquake struck. Emergency Support Organizations Examples In the first 24 hours after the disaster, Oxfam America received contributions totaling more than $800,000.
At least $10,000 of that came in through a Facebook cause.
The Global Philanthropy Group started a campaign asking celebrities and other donors to use social media to encourage giving to UNICEF. Emergency Support Citizens Many members of the public participated in “CrisisCamps” across the U.S.
Volunteers created accurate maps of devastated areas in Haiti and directed relief efforts to those areas.
A Homeland Security employee discovered a message on Twitter giving the location and coordinates of a person trapped under a building.
The Department of Homeland Security forwarded the information to the State Department, which sent a rescue team to the site. According to CNN, social media helped raise $8 million by the end of the week. Local Citizens Information Sharing Information Sharing Information Sharing Information Sharing Emergency Support Emergency Support Hurricane Sandy Information Sharing Information Sharing Information Sharing Information Sharing Organizations Emergency Support Organizations Emergency Support Local Citizens Location: northeastern of Japan
Date: on March 11, 2011
Event: a powerful earthquake off the northeastern coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which caused widespread damage on land and initiated a series of large tsunami waves that devastated many coastal areas of the country. The 9.0 earthquake generated a 124-foot tsunami wave
10,102 people are dead or presumed dead
143,359 homes were damaged or destroyed
More than 400,000 people were evacuated
More than 12.5 million people affected nationwide
Destroyed or Damaged
56 bridges Impact Two primary hashtags. #Tsunami and #prayforjapan are trending on Twitter with thousands of tweets per second discussing the topic.
1,188 tweets per minute The American Red Cross, and other organizations have come up with different campaigns and ways for people to donate.
Facebook - Created a Facebook page "Help Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami Victims"
Twitter - They provide hashtags to search for various information and how to donate
Results - By March 14, the American Red Cross had raised nearly $8 million to support relief after Japan's disaster with US companies also offering multimillion-dollar donations. Hurricane Sandy, a late-season post-tropical cyclone, swept through the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States in late October 2012.
October 29: Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the United States about 8 p.m. EDT, striking near Atlantic City, N.J.
November 1: Sandy had dissipated. Impact of Hurricane More than 8 million lost power
Airlines canceled more than 12,600 flights
Death toll in the U.S. over 100 (285 total)
More than 650,000 U.S. homes damaged or destroyed
Damages exceed $50 billion 20 million tweets tagged #sandy or related terms on Twitter (#hurricanesandy)
Hurricane Sandy was the 2nd most popular topic in 2012 on Facebook
Prayers and well wishes were also a large part of the conversation, 13% of the Sandy discussion. 800,000 photos tagged #sandy on Instagram
10 Sandy-related photos per second were uploaded to Instagram on October 29
TIME asked five photographers to document the hurricane and its aftermath via Instagram. New York Office of Emergency Management provided hourly updates and evacuation orders via Twitter
"Google Crisis Response" map
Provides up-to-the-minute information on Sandy’s path, areas of high wind and flooding, best evacuation routes and links to webcams in the surrounding areas.
NYC Open Data Portal
Enabled developers and designers to create emergency maps and applications The New York Times shared a state-to-state guide to the hurricane, showing tweets from utilities and reporters in other states and resources for people to use.
Issue of "fake" information being retweeted by news sources.
Washington Post reporter tracked global media coverage of the storm: "Major trends seem to be concern for Americans’ safety, fake photos going viral on social media, and lots of jokes...not so different from within the United States [but there are] little differences that stand out." http://on.fb.me/ZwvBKG Within days of the Japanese earthquake and tsunami, organizations stepped up to help offer news and information about the crisis.
64% of blog links
32% of Twitter news links
Top 20 YouTube videos Citizens used social media to share information about who had power and electricity to share.
U.S. Federal Communications Commission asked people in emergencies to use SMS when possible because SMS is generally reliable, even when networks aren't fully operational, and SMS is highly efficient and reduces congestion on cell networks.
On Twitter, hash tags were first created for the storm, then broken out by city, e.g., #SandyDC or #SandyNYC. Bloomberg administration used multiple Twitter accounts to post updates: @NYCMayorsOffice, @MikeBloomberg and @NYCnotify
Routinely upload video of storm briefings onto their channels on YouTube
@NYGovCuomo's account shared when tunnels were closed, bridges opened, commuter rails shut down, etc.
New York City managing www.NYC.gov and numerous channels, including Facebook pages, Flickr, Google+, Tumblr, Twitter and YouTube.
FEMA also used social media heavily
The American Red Cross also offered a Hurricane App to assist in individual recovery. Facebook posts, photos, videos, and blog updates were happening at the same time after the earthquake hit Japan.
Facebook allowed users to share links and updates on the crisis with friends and followers.
Mixi connected individuals based on specific topics of conversation that were being discussed.
Twitter provided helpful hashtags in English, including: medical information for victims: #311 care. The Japan Tsunami attracted the attention of major global media corporations such as CNN, BBC, Aljazeera, New York Times, and others.
Global media play major roles in providing information concerning the impending occurrence of a disaster or the magnitude with which the disaster occurred and the aftermath.
With Japan, for instance, the global media named above were instrumental in mobilizing global humanitarian assistance that played major role in managing the disaster and its aftermath People started to organized themselves by using social media to help and work as volunteers. The Numbers as a Whole "As it unfolded, a different confluence of factors combined to create another hybrid vortex in which the virtual community experienced the storm both in seclusion and all together. We all watched through our screens first, interacting all the while, and out the window second." Progression of Social Media Use
during Natural Disasters
Increase of Use:
Haiti - 2010 - 2.3 million tweets
Sandy – 2012 - 20 million tweets
Haiti - Twitter primarily
Japan - Facebook and Mixi
Sandy - Facebook, Twitter, Instagram
Haiti – use of current accounts.
Sandy – creating new accounts specifically for event
Sandy - "fake" and "incorrect" information being posted
- Rumor control needed “I’ve never liked or used the word ‘community’ about people communicating online, but the Sandy conversations seemed worthy of the word, actually communal,” he wrote. “And given the circumstances, it really could’ve only happened online.” -David Carr, New York Times -Joe Coscarelli, New York Magazine http://huff.to/lEYs4n