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A Guide to the Conflict in the DRC
Transcript of A Guide to the Conflict in the DRC
A timeline of the conflict
1990: Rwandan Patriotic Front invades Rwanda from Uganda. Consists mostly of Tutsi refugees from Rwanda who have been living in Uganda.
1994: Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana shot down, sparking genocidal violence. Extremist groups target Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
1993: Peace agreement between RPF and Rwandan government.
Who shot down Habyarimana's plane? We don't know for sure. Wikipedia has a pretty good summary of the debate: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_Juv%C3%A9nal_Habyarimana_and_Cyprien_Ntaryamira
1994: The RPF seizes control of Rwanda. Refugees, some of them former killers, flee to the DRC.
1996: Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (ADFL) formed. Headed by Congolese rebel, Laurent Kabila, but formed with strong influence from Rwanda.
1996-1997: ADFL and other forces invade DRC from Rwanda to gain control of Eastern DRC and quell anti-Tutsi groups there. The ADFL subsequently overthrows Mobutu. Laurent Kabila becomes president.
Mobutu's home town and the place where Habyarimana's body was cremated as the ADFL advanced from the East. See http://www.theguardian.com/cities/gallery/2015/feb/10/inside-gbadolite-mobutu-ruined-jungle-city-in-pictures
1998: Relationship between Kabila and Rwanda and Uganda sours. RCD and MLC form and are backed by Rwanda and Uganda. They take control of large swathes of the DRC. Described as the Second Congo War.
1999: Ceasefire, Lusaka accord. MONUC (later MONUSCO) established by UN to attain/maintain peace.
2001: Laurent Kabila killed by bodyguard. Joseph Kabila takes over.
2001- Regular flare-ups of conflict. Continued backing of rebel groups by Rwanda and Uganda. Regular attempts at peace.
2006: Joseph Kabila wins democratic elections.
Late 2000s: New rebel groups and leaders emerge. E.g. CNDP under Laurent Nkunda (later Bosco Ntaganda).
2010-present: regular eruptions of conflict. M23 prominent 2012-2013.
2011: Kabila wins elections again.
Mobutu Sese Seko
President of Zaire, 1965-1997
Removed by coup d'etat led by Laurent Kabila.
President of Rwanda, 1973-1994
Plane shot down 1994, sparked Rwandan genocide.
President of Rwanda, 2000-present, de facto ruler since 1994. Leader of RPF during civil war.
President of Uganda, 1986-present.
President of DRC, 1997-2001
President of DRC, 2001-present
RPF: Rwandan Patriotic Front
Tutsi-dominated group which took control of Rwanda in 1994.
AFDL: Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of the Congo.
Group which led rebellion against Mobutu. Led by Kabila, but facilitated by Kagame.
RCD: Congolese Rally for Democracy
Rebel movement (and later political party), began in 1998, backed by Rwanda. Splintered into several groups, some backed by Rwanda, others Uganda.
MLC: Movement for the Liberation of the Congo.
Rebel movement begun in 1990s, backed by Uganda, Jean-Pierre Bemba is a key figure, later became political party.
FDLR: Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda
Rebel group in DRC made up of remnants of former Hutu-dominated Rwandan army who fled into DRC after RPF took control.
FARDC: Current Congolese army.
Banyamulenge: name given to Congolese Tutsis living in east DRC.
MONUSCO: UN peacekeeping force in the DRC, established in 1999.
Mai-Mai: term given to various community-based armed groups set up mostly for self-defence. Many have had shifting alliances with various other groups.
Interahamwe: armed group which led genocide. Many fled to DRC in 1994.
Taken from Le Monde Diplomatique at http://mondediplo.com/maps/congomdv49.
This map was produced by the IRIN-CEA, but I accessed it from Benjamin Todd's 'Congo, Coltan, Conflict.
Taken from http://aiddata.org/blog/dodd-frank-in-the-drc-regulation-aid-and-the-resource-curse
2002: Peace Agreements signed in Sun City, SA and Luanda, Angola. The Second Congolese War officially ends.