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A Guide to the Conflict in the DRC
Transcript of A Guide to the Conflict in the DRC
A timeline of the conflict
1990: Rwandan Patriotic Front invades Rwanda from Uganda. Consists mostly of Tutsi refugees from Rwanda who have been living in Uganda.
1994: Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana shot down, sparking genocidal violence. Extremist groups target Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
1993: Peace agreement between RPF and Rwandan government.
Who shot down Habyarimana's plane? We don't know for sure. Wikipedia has a pretty good summary of the debate: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_Juv%C3%A9nal_Habyarimana_and_Cyprien_Ntaryamira
1994: The RPF seizes control of Rwanda. Refugees, some of them former killers, flee to the DRC.
1996: ADFL formed. Headed by Congolese rebel, Laurent Kabila, but formed with strong influence from Rwanda.
1996-1997: ADFL and other forces invade DRC from Rwanda to gain control of Eastern DRC and quell anti-Tutsi groups there. Mobutu overthrown. Laurent Kabila becomes president.
Mobutu's home town and the place where Habyarimana's body was cremated as the ADFL advanced from the East. See http://www.theguardian.com/cities/gallery/2015/feb/10/inside-gbadolite-mobutu-ruined-jungle-city-in-pictures
1998: Relationship between Kabila and Rwanda and Uganda sours. RCD and MLC form and are backed by Rwanda and Uganda. They take control of large swathes of the DRC.
1999: Ceasefire, Lusaka accord. MONUC (later MONUSCO) established by UN to attain/maintain peace.
2001: Laurent Kabila killed by bodyguard. Joseph Kabila takes over.
2001- Regular flare-ups of conflict. Continued backing of rebel groups by Rwanda and Uganda. Regular attempts at peace.
2006: Joseph Kabila wins democratic elections.
Late 2000s: New rebel groups and leaders emerge. E.g. CNDP under Laurent Nkunda (later Bosco Ntaganda).
2010-present: regular eruptions of conflict. M23 prominent 2012-2013.
2011: Kabila wins elections again.
Mobutu Sese Seko
President of Zaire, 1965-1997
Removed by coup d'etat led by Laurent Kabila.
President of Rwanda, 1973-1994
Plane shot down 1994, sparked Rwandan genocide.
President of Rwanda, 2000-present, de facto ruler since 1994. Leader of RPF during civil war.
President of Uganda, 1986-present.
President of DRC, 1997-2001
President of DRC, 2001-present
RPF: Rwandan Patriotic Front
Tutsi-dominated group which took control of Rwanda in 1994.
AFDL: Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of the Congo.
Group which led rebellion against Mobutu. Led by Kabila, but facilitated by Kagame.
RCD: Congolese Rally for Democracy
Rebel movement (and later political party), began in 1998, backed by Rwanda. Splintered into several groups, some backed by Rwanda, others Uganda.
MLC: Movement for the Liberation of the Congo.
Rebel movement begun in 1990s, backed by Uganda, Jean-Pierre Bemba is a key figure, later became political party.
FDLR: Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda
Rebel group in DRC made up of remnants of former Hutu-dominated Rwandan army who fled into DRC after RPF took control.
FARDC: Current Congolese army.
Banyamulenge: name given to Congolese Tutsis living in east DRC.
MONUSCO: UN peacekeeping force in the DRC, established in 1999.
Mai-Mai: term given to various community-based armed groups set up mostly for self-defence. Many have had shifting alliances with various other groups.
Interahamwe: armed group which led genocide. Many fled to DRC in 1994.
Taken from Le Monde Diplomatique at http://mondediplo.com/maps/congomdv49.
This map was produced by the IRIN-CEA, but I accessed it from Benjamin Todd's 'Congo, Coltan, Conflict.
Taken from http://aiddata.org/blog/dodd-frank-in-the-drc-regulation-aid-and-the-resource-curse
2002: Peace Agreements signed in Sun City, SA and Luanda, Angola. The Second Congolese War officially ends.
2016: scheduled elections delayed. Kabila remains in power.
1986: Yoweri Museveni's NRU comes to power in coup in Uganda. Backed by Rwandan refugees in Uganda.
NRA/M: National Resistance Army/Movement. Came to power in Uganda in 1987.