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Module 5 Honors Extension

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David Miller

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of Module 5 Honors Extension

The History of Electricity The next experiments with electricity did not occur until the late 1600s He performed the famous kite experiment, showing that lightning was . Michael Faraday created the electric generator 1879
Thomas Edison invented a light bulb with a carbon filament enclosed in a glass bulb free of oxygen he was the first scientist to send messages without wires using electromagnetic waves His ideas were used to send telegraph signals, and later, more complex audio and visual signals, over long distances Household Electricity Thomas Edison was the first person to harness electricity for household use Along with the lightbulb, Edison created the first electric stations to provide electricity for the bulbs. But these stations had a few problems... In the 1880s, cities began adopting his electrical stations, but the stations couldn't power an entire city Also, Edison's electrical generators provided a direct current, which couldn't transport electricity over long distances. In 1887, Nikolas Tesla solved the problems of Edison's direct currents by creating a system of producing an alternating current Tesla's ideas were adopted by the George Westinghouse company, and after a long battle between Edison and Tesla... the alternating current became the preferred current By the 1930s, most people in American cities had access to electricity The Greeks Otto van Guericke Benjamin Franklin Michael Faraday Thomas Edison Gugielmo Marconi By David Miller The Greeks He was also the first to suggest that electricity flows from a positive end to a negative end Benjamin Franklin electricity created the first simple electric motor made of electromagnets Discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction His invention was incredibly influential and helpful Thomas Edison This was a


improvement Drastic For the first time, people had electric Lighting In their homes Gugielmo Marconi Were the first to discover electricity... This was the earliest discovery of static electricity Over 2000 years ago They found that if you rub amber on a cloth, it attracts small objects... Otto van Guericke He discovered:
electricity's ability to flow
electromagnetism
and his device led scientists to invent the capacitor. studied static electricity and invented a device made of sulfur that produced SPARKS 110 vs. 220 A major debate about electricity was whether the United States should use a 110 volt or 220 volt system The United States had originally used a 110 volt system, but in the 1950s, it was suggested that the country move to 220 volts like most of Europe. Instead of changing systems completely, the United States began using Thomas Edison's 3-wire system. This system allowed people to access 120 volts for small appliances, but large appliances could still access 220 volts. The Plug The plug was a very important invention that allowed people to access the wiring of a house in order to use something other than lights Harvey Hubble was the first person to design a separating plug, which had one side connected to the wiring of the house and one side connected to the appliance. The 2-pronged plug could be separated from the socket, creating an easier and safer way to access a building's wiring Philip Labre then improved upon Hubble's design in 1928, adding a third prong to prevent people from receiving a shock in the event of a short circuit. Today, most people in the United States receive electricity from a local power plant. Most power plants use steam turbines to generate electricity In a steam turbine, steam forces a shaft to turn. Connected to that shaft is a large magnet inside a coil of copper wire. As the shaft turns, the magnet spins very fast, and an electric current is generated in the copper wire. Power plants can make the steam in a variety of ways. coal nuclear oil Other types of power plants, like wind and hydroelectric, have alternative methods of turning the shaft. In the event of a power failure, some households and businesses use generators as a backup.

These machines are engine-powered electricitic generators that can supply a building with electricity and usually run off of gasoline. The process of receiving power from a power plant involves the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity through the power grid. The power grid is a complex network used to distribute electricity. It begins with the production of electricity in a power plant Next, the transmission substation increases the generator's electricity to a very high voltage in order to travel long distances The electricity then flows through high voltage transmission lines and to a power substation. Here, the voltage is reduced for distribution, and the electricity is sent in multiple directions. Finally, the electricity flows through the power lines, to the transformer drum, which reduces it to around 240 volts, and to the house or building.


Bellis Mary. “Understanding Electricity.” About.com: Inventors. The New York Times Company. Web.
21 April 2010. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric1.htm.

Brian Marshall. “How Power Grids Work.” How Stuff Works. Discovery Communications, LLC. Web.
21 April 2010. http://science.howstuffworks.com/power.htm/printable.

Hartman Robin. “A Powerful History: The Modern Electrical Outlet.” Illumin. Web. 21 April 2010.
http://illumin.usc.edu/article.php?articleID=181&page=1.

“History of Electricity.” The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Web. 21 April 2010.
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/H/history_of_electricity.html

“The History of Electricity.” Forte Electric. Forte Electric Inc, 2005.. Web. 21 April 2010.
http://www.forteelectric.com/HistoryElectricity.html Works Cited David Miller
Physics
Module 5 Honors Extension
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