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AP Chemistry Concept Map

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Marthadina Lookabill

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of AP Chemistry Concept Map

Intermolecular Forces Molecular Geometry Periodic Table Chemical Bonds Periodicity Valence Electron Periodic Trends Intramolecular Forces Both are types of attractive, molecular forces The periodic table reveals the trend of #of Periodic table has trends based on the order in which elements appear in the table- these are called periodic trends. Periodicity is the concept of logical patterns appearing in the periodic table that can be used to determine properties. VSEPR A theory that helps determine molecular geometry Group Trends Bond Enthalpy Lattice Energy Lattice energy can be used to measure the strength of a bond Measure of the amount of energy needed to break a chemical bond Electronegativity The measure of strength an ion has to pull another ion to it, to form a chemical bond Period Trends Periodic trends based on the period (row) Periodic trends based on the group (column) Electronegativity has periodic trends on the periodic table Covalent Bond Ionic Bond Chemical bond between two anions Chemical bond between a cation and an anion Lewis Dot Structure Is a diagram of covalent bonds Uses valence electrons as part of process to create diagram Uses valence electrons as part of process to create diagram Lewis Dot Symbol Dot structure is composed of a specific # of dot symbols Each dot symbol represents a valence electron Each dot symbol represents Octet Rule Rule that applies to Lewis Dot Structure Single/Double/Triple Bond Octet rule leads to the correct # of bonds in the diagram Lewis Structure Same diagram, but dot structure shows each valence electron, other structure focuses on the bonds (represented by lines) Covalent Compound Compound made from covalent bond Bond strength is factored into both topics Bond strength is factored into both topics Born-Haber Cycle Process to find lattice energy Cation Anion Ionic bonds are made out of anions and cations Ionic bonds are made out of anions and cations Covalent bonds are made of anions Ions Elements Periodic table is made up of all the different elements Type of ion Type of ion Elements turn into ions by gaining or losing electrons Monatomic Diatomic Elements that appear as isolated atoms are monatomic Elements that appear in nature bonded to itself (two atoms) are diatomic Electrons Electrons on the outer shell of the atom Atoms Atoms have electrons around their nucleus Isoelectronic when two different atoms have the same number of electrons atoms can be Elements are made of atoms Core Electrons Core electrons are all the electrons that aren't valence Electrons that are not on the outer shell of the atom (inner shells) Electron
Affinity Electron affinity has periodic trends on the periodic table Electronegativity has periodic trends on the periodic table Both factor in energy of an atom/molecule Both factor in energy of an atom/molecule Amount of energy an atom has to attract electrons Amount of energy an atom has to attract electrons valence electrons in an element Energy released after it is pulled to another atom/molecule Free Element Element that is not combined with any other elements Noble Gas Last group on the periodic table Group of gas elements with similar traits Periodic trends are patterns on the periodic table Periodic trends are patterns on the periodic table Atomic Radius Atomic radius has periodic trends on the periodic table Size of atoms Halides 7th group of the periodic table Ionization Energy Has periodic trends on periodic table Has periodic trends on periodic table Both relate to pulling electrons out of atoms/molecules Ionic
Compound Compound made from ionic bond Compounds Chemical bonds create compounds Type of compound Type of compound Type of compound Oxides Compounds which contain oxygen Ionic Radius both are a measure of radius Effective Nuclear
Charge effective charge of electrons Shielding Effect Shielding effect is factored into deciphering the effective nuclear charge Elements combine to make compounds Base Acid Type of compound Type of compound Amphoteric Can be a base Can be an acid Bond Length Distance between bonds Covalent bond in which electrons are more attracted toward one atom over the other Polar Covalent
Bond Coordinate
Covalent
Bond Covalent bond in which the electron pair shared between two atoms comes from one atom Radicals Radicals are unpaired atoms/molecules Covalent bond in which there is no dipole moment/polarity Non-polar
Covalent
Bond Resonance
Structure Used when a lewis structure will not
properly model the compound Bipyramidal Type of molecular geometry in which there are 5 atoms in one molecule Linear Type of molecular geometry in which there are two to three atoms in the molecule Polarity Covalent bond in which there is no dipole moment/polarity Covalent bond in which electrons are more attracted toward one atom over the other Sigma
Bond Strongest covalent bond Dipole
Moment Dipole moments signify polarity Factors in electron pairs Trigonal Type of molecular geometry that resembles a triangle Trigonal
Planar Trigonal
Bipyramidal Trigonal
Pyramidal Type of trigonal geometry Type of trigonal geometry Type of trigonal geometry a valence electron VSEPR uses Lewis Structure as part of process Electron
Density Likelihood that electrons will be at a specific spot Octahedral Type of molecular geometry in which six atoms are arranged to create 8 faces Hybridization Theory that explains the molecular geometry when the VSEPR theory doesn't work Hybrid
Orbitals Part of the hybridization theory Planar Trigonal
Planar Square
Planar Type of molecular geometry that is flat like a plane Type of planar molecular geometry in which 3 atoms are arranged in a flat triangle Type of planar molecular geometry in which 4 atoms are arranged in a flat square Pi Bond Type of covalent bond with overlapping orbitals Valence shell
Expansion When there are more than 8 valence electrons in a shell, breaking the octet rule isoelectronic When there are more than 8 valence electrons in a shell Adhesion Cohesion Intermolecular force causing substances to stick to other substances Intermolecular force causing substances to stick to themselves Chemical
Reaction Chemical bonds form by a chemical reaction Chemical
Properties Chemical properties are found during chemical reactions Physical
Properties The two types of properties matter can have Melting
Point Type of physical property; temperature at which the substance melts Boiling
Point Type of physical property; temperature at which a substance boils Amorphous
Solid Solids which do not have a lattice/crystalline structure (no organized pattern of molecule arrangement) Amorphous solids have no set melting point Amorphous solids have no Both are physical properties Both are physical properties Freezing
Point Type of physical property; temperature at which a substance freezes Cohesion is caused by the attraction of the electrons of molecules to each other States
of
Matter set boiling point Changes a solid to a liquid, a new state of matter Changes a liquid to a gas, a new state of matter Changes a liquid to a solid, a new state of matter Condensation Change in state of matter, from gas to liquid Coordination
Number Found by counting the surrounding atoms chemically bonded to it Critical
Pressure Amount of pressure needed to change the state of matter: a gas into a liquid Critical
Temperature Temperature at which it is too hot to convert a gas into a liquid; both relate to converting gas to liquid Crystalline
Solid Solids which do not have a lattice/crystalline structure (no organized pattern of molecule arrangement) Density Is a physical property Dispersion
Forces Weak type of intermolecular force Van der Waals
Force Type of van der waals force Dynamic
Equilibrium When there is a constant ratio of reactant to product in a chemical reaction Equilibrium
State When some molecules of a substance are changing into a gas state while others change into a liquid, or a solid state Equilibrium
Vapor
Pressure Amount of pressure vapor has in equilibrium state Evaporation Change in state of matter, from liquid to gas Hydrogen
Bonding Can be intra or intermolecular Can be intra or intermolecular Induced
Dipole Is an intermolecular force The forces involving induced dipoles occur in atoms/molecules that are originally not polar, but become polar Induced dipoles occur by the electrons of a nonpolar molecule shifting to one side of the nucleus Ion Radius of an ion Ion-Dipole
Force Intermolecular force between an ion and polar molecule Involves a polar molecule and an ion Force between ion and polar molecule Force between ion and polar molecule Ionic
Crystals Crystals made up of ions Lattice
Point Point on the grid of a lattice/crystalline structure Metallic
Crystal Crystalline structure of metals Sublimation Changing states of matter; from solid to gas without going through liquid state Energy in kj/mol to do sublimation molar heat
of sublimation Molar heat
of
Vaporization Energy in kj/mol to evaporate a liquid Molecular
Crystals Has both intra and intermolecular forces Has both intra and intermolecular forces Phase Form of matter similar to states of matter (liquid, gas, solid) but can be more specific. Multiple phases can still be considered one state of matter Phase
Change Change from one phase to another Vapor
Pressure The pressure of a vapor Phase
Diagram Chart of phase changes based on temperature and presssure change Polarizability How easily an atom/molecule's electrons can be shifted to make the atom/molecule polar Supercooling Cooling a liquid/gas past its freezing point without it changing states to a solid Surface
Tension Ability of a liquid to support objects even if they are denser than the liquid (they float) Triple Point The temperature and pressure in which all three states of matter in a substance are present in equilibrium Unit Cell One individual box of a crystalline structure
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