Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
PEERS: Group bias in the detection of false confessions
Transcript of PEERS: Group bias in the detection of false confessions
in the detection of false confessions Central Park Jogger Case Brutal rape and near-fatal beating of a woman
Arrest of 5 teenagers (14-16 years) 5 detailed confessions to group rape after ~28 hours of interrogation
All 5 were convicted and sentenced to lengthy prison sentences. In 2002, a confession by an imprisoned rapist overturned the convictions Psycholegal research: Police coercion, interrogation times, youth as a risk factor Colour and false convictions All 5 were people of colour.
civil rights lawsuit (Kassin & Gudjonsson, 2004) Why are people of colour at risk of falsely confessing? Causes of false confessions Taslitz, 2006: Police officers hold stereotypes against Black suspects.
=> They presume guilt rather than
innocence. Taslitz, 2006: => Police exerts more pressure on suspects
and are less likely to look at
conflicting evidence. Najdowski, 2011: People of colour are aware of stereotypes about criminality.
=> They try hard to appear innocent,
making them suspicious.
(stereotype threat) Kassin, Meissner, & Norwick, 2005: poor accuracy
investigator guilty response bias Does a guilt bias towards people of colour hinder the detection of false confessions? The power of social categorisation Even most trivial categorisation makes people: Minimal group paradigm* * Billig & Tajfel, 1973 judge members of their group as (1) more similar to them and (2) more positively.
allocate more resources to their in-group
perceive members of an out-group as more similar to each other In-group favouritism Out-group homogeniety 1. 3. 2. Pager (2005): (1) observers extend their self-perception (being honest) witnesses of the same ethnic group
(2) witnesses from another group are likely to be perceived as dissimilar (dishonest) 1st Hypothesis: Participants will be more likely to believe statements of in-group members. 2nd Hypothesis: Participants will more readily accept confessions by out-group members as true. People are likely
(1) to identify as law-abiding, moral
(2) to extend this notion to in-group
members. 3rd Hypothesis: The out-group guilt bias will overrule or moderate the effect of veracity in the detection of false confessions. Kassin et al., 2005: Confession-specific bias towards accepting confessions as true = guilt bias Design Video statements Procedure Lie vs. true statement: False vs. false confession True vs. false confession Coverstory:
Test of a programme of group exercises
to improve lie detection abilities
Blue and yellow headbands were used to create minimal groups
Videotaped statements and confessions were used to test for (1) in-group/out-group effects and (2) detection abilities. Group sessions of 10 participants: 0:05h Introduction to coverstory
0:10h Group exercises
0:30h Videos and detection assessment
0:35h Post-experimental questionnaire
0:40h Debriefing For each of the four statements, a pair of two videos was shown (forced choice).
Each person in each video pair was recorded wearing a blue and yellow headband. (counterbalancing)
Each video pair was introduced by an explanation of the statement's background. (2nd video pair)
"I saw a black card." (3rd video pair)
"I was selfish and kept all the money to myself." (1st & 4th video pair) "I drove through a red light in my car."
"I once deflated another person's bicycle tire." Participants 6 participants were excluded post-hoc
N = 33
Mean age = 21.5 years
28 women & 5 men
Show-up rates for the 5 group sessions varied from 6(3)/10 to 9/10
Reward of either 1 research credit point or a VVV voucher of 7.50 € Results: Accuracy 13 of 33 (39%; 95% CI [23%, 56%]) were able to identify the true confession in the first video pair.
=> Poor accuracy in in-group/in-group
comparison Results: Group bias => Non-significant and/or unexpected trends Results: Truth x Group bias Poor accuracy
No interaction with group effect Conclusion: No/contradicting evidence for the hypothesised out-group guilt bias Why was no/contradicting evidence found? References: Questions? Methodological issues: Internal validity
Instructions, group composition
Forced-choice & guilt bias
Severity of confessions Alternative theories: Group bias influences trait ratings and resource allocation, but not FC detection.
(Implicit) stereotyping influences juries' and judges' evaluation of a defendant.
Stereotype threat renders defendants' demeanour in court less credible. (Berg, Dickhaut, & McCabe, 1995) Berg, J., Dickhaut, J., & McCabe, K. (1995). Trust,
reciprocity, and social history. Games and
Economic Behavior, 10, 122-142.
Billig, M., & Tajfel, H. (1973). Social categorization
and similarity in intergroup behavior. European
Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 27-52.
Duru, N. J. (2004). The Central Park Five, the Scottsboro Boys, and the myth of the bestial black
man. Cardozo Law Review, 25, 1315-1356.
Gross, S. R., Jacoby, K., Matheson, D. J., Montgomery,
N., & Patil, S. (2005). Exonerations in the
United States 1989 through 2003. The Journal
of Criminal Law and Criminology, 95, 523–560.
Innocence Project. (2009). In their own words.
Innocence Project in Print, 5, 16-17.
Kassin, S. M., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (2004). The
psychology of confessions: A review of the
literature and issues. Psychological Science in
the Public Interest, 5, 33-67.
Kassin, S. M., Meissner, C. A., & Norwick, R. J. (2005).
“I’d know a false confession if I saw one”: A
comparative study of college students and
police investigators. Law and Human Behavior,
Mullen, B., Brown, R., & Smith, C. (1992). Ingroup
bias as a function of salience, relevance and
status: An integration. European Journal of
Social Psychology, 22, 103-122.
Najdowski, C. J. (2011). Stereotype threat in criminal
interrogations: Why innocent black suspects are
at risk for confessing falsely. Psychology, Public
Policy, and Law, 17, 562-591.
Pager, C. K. W. (2005). Blind justice, colored truths
and the veil of ignorance. Willamette Law
Review, 41, 373-434.
Taslitz, A. E. (2006). Wrongly accused: Is race a
factor in convicting the innocent? Ohio State
Journal of Criminal Law, 4, 121-133.
The Sentencing Project. (2012). Trends in U.S.
corrections. Retrieved June 20, 2012 from
U.S. Departement of Justice. (2009). Arrests by race,
2009. Retrieved June 20, 2012 from
3.html Concluding remarks > 60% of prisoners in the USA are people of colour
No empirically tested account of colour as a risk factor for false confessions (The Sentencing Project, 2012)