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2.1 The Development and Codification
Transcript of 2.1 The Development and Codification
of Religious and Cultural Traditions
Historical Period 2: c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E.
Since the historical times, an abundant amount of religions and philosophies have served as a base for many civilizations' cultures and thus, creating a heavy impact on the world we live in today.
-An ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of Confucius
-A belief that familial relationships are the foundation for society
-its primary purpose is to achieve harmony, the most important social value
-Emphasis on social order and fulfillment of responsibilities
-According to Confucius, moderation in behavior, veneration of custom and ritual, and a love of wisdom should characterize the leaders of society at all levels.
-Concept of filial piety – respect owed to one’s parents and ancestors
-The practice of proper behavior, li
Peaceful society built upon Five Key Relationships
-A belief system based on the teachings of philosopher Laozi
-Laozi believed that people should not seek power and wealth, but that they should seek happiness and peace within themselves
-Can find peace by becoming one with the Dao (the Way) and that should see themselves as part of nature, leading to a balanced life in harmony
-Stressed that nature contains a divine impulse that directs all life
-True harmony comes from balancing the opposite forces of nature, yin and yang
Greece and Rome
New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths
-The message and teaching of Christianity is: there is only one God who loves the humankind; he send his son, Jesus of Nazareth, to earth to redeem human sins and preach to the people of the world; Jesus gathered disciples who spread the word about God
-emphasis on church organization and structure
-intolerant of other religions
-stressed the possibility of an afterlife and heaven
- can be achieved if faithful to the religion, do good deeds, lead a life following the rules of the church
I. The organization and developments of existing religions
II. New religions and cultural traditions
e. Greco-Roman philosophy, science emphasized logic, empirical observation, and the nature of political power
III. Affects of religion on society
IV. Other Religions
V. Artistic expressions
The Big Ideas
The organization of rules and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.
Polytheism: the worshiping of multiple gods
- Usually believed in multiple gods and/goddesses who control different elements of nature
-involves rituals and sacrifices to the gods to achieve personal desires (good crop, good fortune, luck, love)
-earliest form of religion
Demeter- Goddess of Agriculture
- the world's first clearly developed monotheistic religion
- Believed in a single God, Jehovah, who leads the Jewish people
-Hebrew Bible holds the history and beliefs of Jews
-Basis for the development of Christianity and Islam
-A way of life and not a set of rituals and ceremonies (new concept for this time)
The Ten Commandment
Affects of Religion on Society
Beliefs & Philosophy
Belief in nature spirits = Gods and Goddesses
(the super humans)
-illustrates human desires as well as bad/good characteristics;
-lacked spirituality and guidance in life
-stressed importance of moderation and control in human behavior; unlike gods and goddesses
Ex: Aristotle and Cicero
"Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit." -Aristotle
Confucianism and Filial Piety
-one of the virtues of Confucianism: a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
-taught that nothing parents does is wrong
-parents can punish disobeying kids
-elders also have responsibility of raising kids well
-basic of "ren" or humanity
-purpose is to ensure harmony in household
The Monastic Life
The Science in the Logic
-passion for seeking basic rationality (reasonable, truth) in the universe
-developed many theories of motion of the universe
-began human kind's journey in looking into science to explain the way of the universe
-developments in anatomy, medical, and mathematics
-time period after Alexander the Great's death in 336 BCE, in which the ideas and culture of Greece spread
-influenced artistic developments in Athens, South Asia, and Persia
-preserved and studied in later time periods
-focused on durability and beauty of the image
-Son of Charmides. Phidias (Pheidias) was known for his nearly 40 foot tall statue of Athena in the Parthenon and his Zeus at Olympia.
BY: KIM DUONG
OCTOBER 3, 2013
Buddhism encouraged a monastic life by...
-appealing to the people by presenting idea of heavenly place call nirvana through meditation and retreat from the material world
-become monks in organized monasteries, preaching about the teachings of Buddha
Buddhism and Christianity encouraged a monastic life by stressing the devotion to achieving a spiritual life by rejecting the materialistic world, which will bring peace and happiness, free of worldly suffering
Christianity encouraged a monastic life by...
-emphasis on simple life and spiritual equality of all people
-deep devotion to God
-The Benedictine Rule: urged disciplined life, with prayer
-the practice of worshiping deceased ancestors who are believed to have the power to intervene in human affairs
-Persisted in many regions such as in Africa, the Mediterranean region, East Asia, and the Andean areas
-One example of where ancestor veneration persisted is in East Asia. Ancestor veneration is a tradition practiced mostly throughout China, Korea, and Japan prior to the foundation of Confucianism, Daoism, and also Buddhism.
-Since China’s earliest days, deceased humans were venerated as spirits that could influence deities on behalf of their living descendants.
Intercessions were made for good harvests, good weather, rainfall, longevity, and other benefits.
-The spirits of one’s ancestors required regular maintenance to intercede with the gods on behalf of the living
-Japanese ancestral veneration known practices are adaptations of Chinese customs
-Confucianism: gave more freedom to women, but gave women the role of serving their husband
supported a patriarchal family: family in which the husband, father, male is the head
-Christianity: gave most church roles to men
supported a patriarchal family
-Hinduism: women mainly take care of household affairs; no power in society; subservient to men; women not allowed marry after death of husband
supported a patriarchy family
-Buddhism: did not believe in caste system; more freedom to women
-A belief system based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as Buddha
-Taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for all earthly things
-Based on four main ideas: the Four Noble Truths
-Accepted the spiritual truth behind many Hindu beliefs, such as reincarnation
-Believed that after one dies, one is reborn in another body
-The way to end one’s suffering and reach enlightenment, or nirvana, is to follow the Middle Path
-Spread and retained coherence through the example and teachings of groups of monks
-Direct democracy: decisions of state were made by general assemblies in which all citizens could participate
-Executive officers and judges were picked from a lot and not elected
women and non-citizens cannot participate
-Aristocratic assembly: established guidelines for state policy and served as check on executive power
"Rule of the Best"
-Republic: government in which a state is ruled by representatives of the citizen body
-Roman citizen can gather in assemblies to vote for magistrates to represent the people
-Senate: legislature body composed of aristocrats; had the most power
1. Emperor& patrician class: families, usually wealthy landowners, who provides empire’s political, religious, and military leadership.
2. Senators: hold political and judicial power
3. Equestrians: business class; wealthy businessmen
4. Plebeians: average working citizens
1. two kings
2. Council of elders: limited power of kings
3. Spartiates: military class
4. Perioeci: middle class
5. Helots: slave class
2. Middle Class: farmers, thetes (craftsmen)
-Perceived as witch doctors who cures people using special powers; sometimes actual healers while other times healing such things as curses
-believed to have the ability to connect with the spiritual world
-largely a part of African and some east Asian countries (Korea, China, Japan)
Influences on Chinese Culture
-Reincarnation: “transmigration of souls,” or “samsara.”
Where each person experiences a series of physical births, deaths, and rebirths. With good karma, a person can be reborn into a higher caste, or even to godhood. Bad karma can relegate one to a lower caste, or even to life as an animal in their next life.
- Karma: every action, thought, or decision one makes has consequences – good or bad – that will return to each person in the present life, or in one yet to come.
- Nirvana: goal of the Hindu. Nirvana is the release of the soul from the seemingly endless cycle of rebirths.
-provided the Chinese people with ethical codes to live by
-political virtue and social order
-set responsibilities for rulers; what the ruler does the people follows
-made Confucian bureaucracy, giving them common ideals
-created hierarchy within household
-husband head of family, wives support husband, children respect parents
-Created basic unity amongst family, society, and government
- Believed in a three-in-one god known as “Brahman,” which is composed of: Brahma (the creator), Vishnu (the Preserver), and Shiva (the Destroyer)
For example: Indian literature
-the term is often used to refer to the belief that non-human entities have souls
-Indian Sanskrit preserved Indian culture
-the Ramayana, written by Valmiki , is an Indian epic that is one of the many influential texts of from this time (600 BCE-600CE)
events surrounding a boy name Rama; portrays Indian life and ideals in life including the concept of Dharma
- religious and/or spiritual belief that souls or spirits exist not only in humans but also in all other animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, geographic features such as mountains or rivers, or other entities of the natural environment
GREECE - The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves.
ROME - Architecture was crucial to the success of Rome. Their architecture, such as temples, buildings, bridges, etc. played important roles in unifying the empire.
-Greeks use plays to portray the world they live in and life as it is
-usually contains themes
-provides a basis for other societys' entertainment culture in later generations, and even affects the theater of today
Famous play writers:
EGYPT -The largest pyramid in existence is the Great Pyramid built by King Cheops (Khufu) at Giza. The Great Pyramid measures 481 feet high, by 775 feet long at each of its four bases.
-Sophocles (496-406 BCE) "Oedipus the King"
-Euripides (480-406 BC) "Medea"
-Aristophanes (446-386 BC) wrote comedies
INDIA -The cave architecture in India is believed to have begun in the third century BC. These caves were used by Buddhist and Jain monks as places of worship and residence.
CHINA - The Great Wall of China is known to be one of the most famous architectures in the world. This majestic architecture shows the intelligence of Chinese people and the spirit of them.
Hinduism Affects On India
- The caste system consisted in the order of Brahmans ( Priests), Kshatriyas (Warriors), Vaisyas (Farmers), Sundras(Common laborers) and the Untouchables(People who do dirty work such as transporting corpses).
-Hinduism affected the caste system by causing the people in lower class to personally devote to these divinities* through prayer that could aid the process of reincarnation to a higher state. Which resulted into symbolic sacrifices or gifts to the gods that might also bring them salvation or entry through reincarnation into a higher caste.
*the divinities would be proper ceremonies in the cremation of bodies at death, appropriate prayers , and obedience to injunctions such as treating cows as sacred animals and refraining from the consumption of beef.
-focused on details and accuracy of the image
- The Romans loved art that are more realisitic (sex, violence)