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Learning Disabilities

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Vinna Roque

on 21 September 2015

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Transcript of Learning Disabilities

Learning Disabilities
Dyslexia
reading disability
problems with spelling and decoding
Dysgraphia
generally characterized by profound inability to form meaningful symbols
distorted or incorrect letters when writing
involves problems related to grammar, punctuation, and poor paragraph organization
General Guidelines in Accommodating Students with LD
1. Be consistent.
2. Give frequent feedback.
3. Use self-correcting materials.
4. Give simple directions.
5. Check for prerequisite skills.
6. Use concrete objects when teaching.
7. Provide processing time.
8. Use differentiated instruction.
9. Provide varied learning experiences.

Specific Learning Disability
neurologic in nature and impedes a child's ability to store, process, and produce information


”reducing course load for students with learning disabilities“

”providing students with chapter outlines or study guides that cue them to key points in their readings“



”asking questions in a way that helps the student gain confidence”

”asking questions in a clarifying manner, and then have the students with learning disabilities describe his or her understanding of the questions “


Specific Learning Disability
Dyslexia
Dysgraphia
Dyscalculia
Processing Disorders
Auditory PD
Sensory PD
Visual PD
it may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations


Dyscalculia
Methods of teaching that can accommodate those with LD
intervention practices that produce large outcomes
-Direct instruction
-learning strategy instruction
-sequential, simultaneous structured multi-sensory approach
When applying those methods
-Learning must be broken into small steps
-probes must be administered
-regular quality feedback
-use of diagrams, pictures, and graphics to augment what they say in words
-provide ample independent, well designed intesive practice
-Use of scaffolding
a difficulty with numbers
This may mean that the child finds it hard to understand how numbers work or learn to count or add, subtract, multiply and divide.
Processing Disorders
Processing, or perception, is the cognitive process in which the information received from the senses is organized and interpreted by the brain. Once information enters the brain, it must be placed in the correct order or sequence, understood in the context in which it was used, and then integrated with other information that is also being processed.
Sensory Processing Disorders
under- or overreaction to tactile stimulation
hyposensitive- may not feel pain from bumps and bruises; may not handle materials well
hypersensitive- may not want to be held or cuddled; may not participate in tactile activities (e.g. water and sand play)
too little or too much vestibular information
too little- may have trouble maintaining balance; need to spend conscious energy just to stay sitting on a chair
too much- may become fearful or overstimulated
Auditory Processing Disorders
inability to integrate auditory stimulation despite having normal hearing
learning of meanings, sound combinations, and specific order of words is flawed; hence, the child's internal models of language are inaccurate

Visual Processing Disorders
confusion in visual input
some problems are:
difficulty identifying letters and confuse letters like b, d, p, and q
difficulty in focusing on a figure as distinguished from an entire page
skipping words/lines when reading
trouble putting multipiece puzzles together
Theoretical Framework
Developmental Psychology
maturation of thinking follows a sequential progression
ability to learn depends on current maturational status
Developmental Variations
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

Implications of Developmental Psychology for LD:
- major cause of students' school difficulties: immaturity
- Readiness - refers to the state of maturational development & prior experiences that are needed before a target skill can be learned.
Behavioral Psychology
Human behavior is shaped by behavioral principles
IEP, Direct Instruction, & Explicit Teaching
Operant Conditioning
Behavioral Analysis
Implications of Developmental Psychology for LD:
- teachers should understand how to analyze the components of a curriculum and how to structure sequential behaviors
Cognitive Psychology
studies the human processes of learning, thinking, and knowing
understanding of how people learn & how cognitive characteristics affect learning
Cognitive Processing
Information-Processing Model of Learning

Strategies used to help children with...
DYSLEXIA
DYSGRAPHIA
DYSCALCULIA
interventions that focus on one skill or a set of interrelated targeted skills are more likely to be effective

shorter reading episodes (15 mins. or less) are more effective than reading for 30 minutes or more

involving children themselves in the process of reading
child's interest as basis for book choice
interactive shared reading and dialogic reading are more effective than shared reading
some children's handwriting will improve with additional instruction

others do better when they are provided with alternatives to written expression

use of word processors

use of paper with raised lines

use of different pencils and pencil grips
as children begin to write, ensure that they use an appropriate grip and that their posture and the position of the paper support the writing process.

understanding and time are still the greatest gifts a teacher can give <3
air writing letters and numbers with big arm movements

talking about letter shapes and how they are formed
giving children own set of work to complete, which is at their level
allowing extra time - even with problems they can do, dyscalculic children are much slower
using written rather than verbal instructions and questions
Use concrete materials to help link mathematical symbols to quantity
Start at a level which the child is comfortable at, so that they experience some success, and slowly move to more difficult areas
Reduce the need for memorisation, especially initially
Ask a lot of questions to get the child engaged and thinking about their own thinking
Make learning as active and fun as possible - a positive experience
Learning Environment
structured
positive emotional climate
CLASSROOM-well organized, neat, and clutter free
Alphabets should be posted
prefix & suffix charts and vowel pattern charts
Display areas should reflect interests and ideas of students
adequate spacing between desks and aisles
consistent routine
Methods of Teaching
References
Inclusive Early Childhood Education: Development, Resources, and Practice
by Penny Low Deiner
Teaching Students with Dyslexia nd Dysgraphia: Lessons from Teaching and Science
by Virginia Berninger & Beverly Wolf
Learning Disabilities and Related Mild Disabilities: Characteristics, Teaching Strategies, and New Directions
by Janet Lerner & Beverley Johns
Learning Disabilities Association of America
retrieved from http://ldaamerica.org/successful-strategies-for-teaching-students-with-learning-disabilities/
Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities
retrieved from http://www.learningrx.com/teaching-children-with-learning-disabilities-faq.htm
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