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Pornography: Battle of the sexes
Transcript of Pornography: Battle of the sexes
represents sexually explicit material
that is generally evaluated negatively and might
include anything that depicts sexuality and causes
arousal in the viewer.
Sexually explicit material:
is material such as photographs, videos, films, magazines, and books whose primary themes, topics, or depictions involve sexuality that may cause sexual arousal; the genitals or intimate sexual behaviors typically are show.
describes sexually explicit material that may
be evaluated positively.
definition may vary, but the term generally implies a personal or societal judgement that something is offensive.
The battle of the sexes
Let the battle begin
The different Categories
Yarber, Sayad,& Strong,2010
How many of you have ever viewed any type of pornography ?
How many of you have viewed pornography with a partner?
How many of you view pornography negatively?
History of Porn
Pornographic magazines and videos directed at men are a multi-billion industry while similar products directed towards women are difficult to find.
It is estimated that of the 40 million adults who visit pornography websites annually, 72% are male while only 28% are female (Rupp and Wallen,2011).
Most explicit DVDs or films are marketed to heterosexual men.
The inclusion of women in the audience has lead to the production of femme porn, which is sexually explicit material catering to women and heterosexual couples.
In the nineteenth century, technology transformed the production of sexually explicit material. Cheap paper and large-scale printing, combined with mass literacy, created an enormous market for books and drawings, including sexually explicit material.
Yarber, Sayad,& Strong,2010
This theoretical approach contends that how people respond to current environments is shaped by mental mechanisms that evolved in response to the problems faced by our ancestors.
Social Learning Theory:
states that social behavior (any type of behavior that we display socially) is learned primarily by observing and imitating the actions of others. The social behavior is also influenced, according to this theory, by being rewarded and/or punished for these action.
Facts of life:
Special Porn Edition:
Yarber, Sayad,& Strong,2010
Areas of brain activation in Males and Females during Viewing of Erotic Film Excerpts :
•Hypothesis of this study: For both male and female subjects, activations in limbic areas were expected. It was predicted that viewing erotica would be associated with a different pattern of hypothalamic activation in male vs. female subjects.
~Two types of visual material were used for the validation of stimuli: erotic film excerpts and emotionally neutral excerpts.
~Participants were scanned in fMRI sessions. They were scanned during two experimental conditions, an erotic condition and a neutral condition.
~Subjective ratings of sexual arousal were significantly greater in male subjects than female subjects
~Male subjects showed significant activation in the thalamus and hypothalamus.
~Female subjects showed a non significant trend in hypothalamic activation was detected and no thalamic activation was seen.
(Karama, et al. 2002)
Orgasmic Latency and subjective ratings of Erotic Stimuli in Male and Female Subject:
~This research examines the effect of alcohol ingestion on orgasmic latency in males and females. Length of time to orgasm in response to the films were measured as well as the subjective response to the films.
24 Male and 18 female adult volunteers between 22-34 participated in the study.
~Latency to orgasm was measured in two ways
1. For males, an (EMG) recording technique measured muscle activity.
•Orgasm was measured behaviorally by providing the subject with a response button connected by a cable to the polygraph.
2. For females, photophethysmographic recording measured blood volume response.
The female subjects tend to have the longest latency to orgasm while viewing films which they rated as average.
Men had no problem reaching orgasm at a decent amount of time while women failed to reach orgasm and struggled, thus taking a longer time.
(Fisher et al. 1986)
Evaluations on Erotica: Facts or feelings?
~The present research study is trying to analyze people’s emotional responses to pornography.
~The subjects first completed a feelings scale (Byrne & Sheffiels, 1965) that required self rating of affect on 11 dimensions.
~ After viewing material, they rated arousal. Then after a second time, they rated pornographic or non pornographic.
~Females rated the themes negatively and rated them pornographic across dimensions.
~Males rated the themes more positively
~It appears that affect is a general predictor of evaluative responses to erotica.
(Bryne et al., 1974)
Affects of Social Pressure on Erections and Evaluations of Erotica
~This study reports the first laboratory test of a classic social psychological paradigm, social influence on men’s judgments and erections when viewing sexual stimuli. A second form of social pressure, demand for erection was also manipulated.
~Hypothesis: Men who heard a rising tone simulating the co participant’s excited response would themselves attain greater erections and report higher subjective rating to the stimuli. Men who heard a low, flat audio tone simulating the co participants lack of arousal would achieve diminished erections and would report lower arousal. Control subjects were provided in every trial with true biofeedback of their actual erections.
~Men were tested in the conditions of hearing biofeedback of his penile arousal or he and a co participant in an adjacent room would hear each other’s penile feedback .
~Hearing feedback of another man’s penile responses to erotica would alter one’s own penile and subjective response had mixed support depending on whether men viewed just nudes or explicit intercourse.
~Social influence had a dramatic effect on the erections of men who viewed nudes. When men heard rising feedback from their co participant, their rating of the nudes attractiveness and their estimates of peak erections also rose with the increasing size of erection.
~Social influence is more powerful than demand for erection.
(Coyne et al, 1988)
Sex Differences, Sex Experience, Sex Guilt and Explicitly Sexual Films:
~This present research studies the reactions of single American undergraduate males and females to explicitly sexual movies as a function of sex guilt and sex experience.
~They took a series of questionnaires:
~Sexual attitudes and behavior, measure of sexual experience and a sex guilt inventory.
~More guilty subjects had more conservative sexual standards about premarital or extramarital sex.
~The more guilty males reported that they were less likely to have obtained pornography voluntarily, and the guilty males and females who had viewed explicit sexual materials reported less arousal and more guilty feelings.
In a study by Janssen, and Graham (2003), when men and women were shown erotic films chosen by either a male or female research staff, they reported higher levels of subjective arousal to films chosen by members of the participant's own sex. Men had higher ratings compared to women for all video's, but had higher ratings for male-chosen films. Women reported lower levels of sexual arousal across all films than did men, but reported higher levels of arousal to female-than-male selected films.
Women's ability to imagine themselves as the women in the film was a determining factor that strongly correlated with their report of sexual arousal to sexually explicit films, according to research by Money and Ehrhardt (1972).
Men, however, rated the attractiveness of the female actor and the ability to observe the women important in their overall sexual arousal to sexually explicit material, in addition to imagining themselves in the situation (Money and Ehrhardt, 1972).
Men are more aroused by the nudity, faces of female actors' and sexual activity being portrayed than then background or story lines (Lykins et al, 2007).
Women are more likely to look at the women's shoes, clothes, background of the scene, and story line than the sexual activity portrayed within the film. According to an eye study done by Lykins et al, 2006.
According to Laan and Everaerd (1995), 85 percent of female subjects said that they paid more attention to both context-related and nonsexual details of the stimuli, such as background information or cues about relationships of the actors
The data by Kelly and Musialowski (1986), suggests that
men show preference for stimuli with new people, whereas
women respond better to stimuli suggesting the stability and security of a consistent partner. This supports our Evolutionary theory.
Kelly and Musialowski's (1986), study may also reflect that women are more likely then men to project themselves into the films and thus partner stability maybe personally rewarding.
Men prefer stimuli enabling objectification of the actors (Money and Ehrhardt, 1972).
Crawford and Popp,(2003) state that "historically, Western culture has given men more sexual freedom and constrained
women more in the display of sexual motivation or interest in sexual material, a doube standard that exists even to some
degree today." This also may relate our to Social Learning '
Example of Pornography and sex guilt
Now that we have presented this information to you, has this confirmed your initial thoughts on pornography? Has this information changed your perception on pornography at all?
Going back to the evolutionary psychology theory, do you fully believe that this is a legitimate theory to base the gender differences of pornography on or is there more than just that?
The term “obscene” is a subjective term; there are individual and gender differences in what is obscene and what is not. Do you think there should be a standard rule to what is considered obscene in pornography?
In the beginning of the presentation, we asked those of you who have seen erotic and sexually explicit material with a partner to raise their hands. What are some of the differences between watching it with someone else and watching it by yourself?
Thoughts? Ideas? Comments?
The social learning theory explains that an individual learns through observation. Do you think that this theory can explain some aspects of pornography? Do you think people observe sexually explicit material and mimic the actions regardless of how weird those acts can be?
Use your brains to come up with some ideas!
Now's the time to use your mind!
Internet sites containing sexually explicit materials are so common that, according to estimates, they comprise more than 1 in every 10 sites, accounting for about 25% of daily search engine request.
Pornographic films display stereotypes of male sexuality: Depicting dominate men with huge, erect penises, able to "last long" and satisfy eager and willing women who are driven mad by their sexual desires.
Gay porn typically features attractive, young, muscular, "well-hung" men, and focuses on eroticism of the male body.
Lesbian explicit films usually depict realistic sexual interactions with a range of body types in both butch and femme styles.
Yarber, Sayad,& Strong,2010
Byrne, D., Fisher, J.D., Lamberth, J., & Mitchell, H.E. (1974). Evaluations of erotica: facts or feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29(1), 111-116.
Crawford, M., & Popp, D. (2003). Sexual double standards: a review and methodological critique of two decades of research, Journal of Sex Research, 40, 13-26.
Coyne, B.J., & Cross, H.J. (1988). Effects of social pressure on erections and evaluations on erotica. The Journal of Sex Research, 25(3), 397-411.
Fisher, T.D., Pollack, R.H., Malatesta, V.J. (1986). Orgasmic latency and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in male and female subjects. The Journal of Sex Research, 22(1), 85-93.
Janssen, E., Carpender, D., & Graham, C.A. (2003) Selecting films for sex research: gender differences in erotic film preferences. Achieves of Sexual Behavior, 32(24), 243-251.
Karama, S., Lecours, A.R., Leroux, J., Bourgouin, P., Beaudoin, G., Joubert, S., & Beauregard, M. (2002). Areas of brain activation in males and females during viewing of erotic film excepts. Human Brain Mapping, 16(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1002/hbm.10014
Kelley, K., & Musialowski, D. (1986). Repeated exposure to sexually explicit stimuli: novelty, sex, and sexual attitudes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15, 487-498.
Laan, E., & Everaerd, W. (1995). Habituation of female sexual arousal to slides and film. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 24, 517-541.
Lykins, A., Everaerd, W., Van der Velde, J., & Geer, J. (1995). Determinants of subjective experience of sexual arousal in women: feedback from genital arousal and erotic stimulus content. Psychophysiology, 32, 444-451..
Lykins, A., Meana, M., & Strauss, C. (2007). Sex differences in visual attention to erotic and non erotic stimuli. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Malamuth, N.M. (1996). Sexually explicit media, gender differences and evolutionary theory. Journal of Communication, 46(3), 8-31.
Money, J., & Ehrhardt, A.A. (1972). Man and woman, boy and girl: the differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Mosher, D.L. (1973). Sex differences, sex experience, sex guilt, and explicitly sexual films. Journal of Social Issues, 29(3), 95-112.