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Soil and Water Quality

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by

Melissa Merritt

on 12 September 2011

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Transcript of Soil and Water Quality

WATER QUALITY What We Use Water For: Growing Our Food Drinking Recreation Where Your Water Comes from Ground Water Surface Water Private Wells Damage to Water Quality: Pollution!! Point Source Non-Point Source Any pollution from a definite source Point Source Pollution can be traced to a known source Clean Water Act Says: . Pipe Smokestack CAFO's ship comes from many diffuse sources. Caused by rainfall or snowmelt
moving over and through the ground As the runoff moves, it picks up
and carries away natural and
human-made pollutants finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even our underground sources of drinking water. According to the EPA: “States report that nonpoint source pollution is the leading remaining cause of water quality problems.” Chesapeake Bay! We all live in one: the area that drains to a common waterway, such as a stream, lake, estuary, wetland, aquifer, and even the ocean. Watershed: Which means all of our sediment and
nitrogen and phosphorous... N N P P N N P N P P N P N N P N P P will travel through our streams... N P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and end up in... P P N N N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . . P P N P N P . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N P N P . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N P N P . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N P N P . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . N N . . . . . P N N P N P P P . . . . . . . P P N N P N P P N P . . . . . . . . . . P P N P N P . . . . . . P P N P N P . . . . . . P P N P N P . . . . . . P P N P N P . . . . . . The Potomac N P N P . . . . . . N N P N P . . . . . . N N P N P . . . . . . N N P N P . . . . . . N N P N P . . . . . . N Potomac River P P N P . . . Chesapeake Bay Watershed Chesapeake BAY! Chesapeake Bay P P . . N P N P . . . What pollution does to the Bay Dead Zones Nitrogen and Phosphorous Oxygen is depleted due to excess nutrients: The decomposition of this algal matter by bacteria requires large amounts of oxygen which quickly depletes dissolved oxygen from bottom waters. Causes algae to grow in abundance These dense algal blooms block sunlight
that underwater bay grasses need to grow. Romney Water Department Source:Mill Creek and
South Branch of
Potomac River The Public Water Supply in Romney, WV: South Branch Mill Creek (West Virginia Department of
Health and Human Resources) South Branch of the Potomac River Watershed from the Chesapeake Bay Program Sedimentation Water becomes cloudy and muddy-looking. Cloudy water does not allow sunlight to filter through to bay grasses growing at the bottom of the Bay's shallows. from USGS What happens when excess sediment is in the water: Nutrients and chemical
contaminants
can bind with sediments,
allowing the pollutants
to spread Fish and shellfish that live and feed
near contaminated bottom sediments can become contaminated too Oysters and other bottom-dwelling
species can be smothered when
excess sediment settles to
the bottom. Excess Sediments Destroy fish spawning beds Reduces useful storage volume in reservoirs Makes costly filtration necessary for municipal water supplies Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sediments in N+P can cause algae to grow in abundance Why Soil Matters: Soil helps control where rain and snowmelt goes.Water and dissolved solutes flow over the land or into and through the soil. Sustaining plant and animal life - The diversity and productivity of living things depends on soil. Filtering potential pollutants - The minerals and
microbes in the soil help filter, tie-up, and alter materials, reducing their impact on water quality Cycling nutrients - Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and many other nutrients are stored, transformed, and cycled through soil. P . P P N P N P . . . . . . N P N P . . . P N P . . . N P P P N . . N P . . P . N . P . N . P . N . water flow water flow How You Can Help Keep Soil Healthy Regulates Water Sustains Growth Filtering Cycling Nutrients Keep the Soil Covered Reduces Erosion, increases infiltration. Increase Plant Diversity A variety of plants encourage many species of organisms to work in the soil which secrete "glues" that hold the soil together. Also increases nutrient cycling Vegetation can also absorb nutrients. Do a Soil Test A soil test can help figure out
how much fertilizer your fields or
garden needs. Concentrated
Animal
Feeding
Operation Water Quality is a term used to describe the the biological, chemical and physical characteristics of water. How well can the water support its intended uses? Non Point Source
Pollution Includes: Excess Nutrients:
Nitrogen (N)
Phosphorous (P) and Sediment Because it's the foundation for all of THIS! And keep our water healthy too! South Branch What People In Our Area are doing
to keep our soil healthy: Creating Buffer Strips Using Cover Crops Managing Nutrients Trees! The Vegetation catches the sediment and nutrients BEFORE it gets into the river STream bank fence to maintain the buffer To keep the soil in place Roofed Feeding Pad
for Livestock Note roof. Stops manure and nutrients from washing away with rainwater into the streams Soil Testing! Getting a Free Soil Test at the WVDA Lets farmers know how much fertilizer fields need By:Melissa Merritt
WVCA Chesapeake Bay! Our Rivers Supporting Structures Soil supports our homes, businesses, roads, parks.
It is the foundation for our daily living. Soil absorbs water like a sponge. It reduces runoff, stores water and solutes, and regulates the flow of water to streams as groundwater. Helps reduce soil erosion Stimulates Soil Biology Increases soil's organic matter Reduce Pesticide Spraying Healthy Vegetation can suppress weeds and the need for herbicides. Pesticides can kill the beneficial soil organizms which improve soil quality
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