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Sabah Ijaz

on 29 April 2015

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Technology: The New Age of Social Media
The evolution of history and media:

by amy brooks, jessica rowley, rachel hope and sabah ijaz.

presentations Argument:
In comparison with other charities:
How far does this negative imagery penetrate the entire humanitarian industry?
2012/13:a £0.8 billion increase in real terms from 2011/12
SFC is in the top 10 charities, in terms of income.
With a total income of £ 559, 141, 000 (2013)
Other charities
UNICEF: similar history: origins in 1946,
'For Every Child',
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Founded in 1919 as an emergency response organisation
Eglantyne Jebb and Dorothy Buxton.
Britain's first 'truly international charity'
1924: 24 countries globally
Both non-political and non sectarian with a philosophy of international co-operation
"We save children's lives. We fight for their rights. We will help them fulfill their potential."
' to inspire breakthroughs in the way the world treats children and to achieve immediate and lasting change in their lives'
Stanley Cohen: 'blind eye'
Is aid something we witness from a distance? Are we reduced to onlookers?
1960s' onwards the role of mass media has increased
Russia- 1921
Compassion fatigue
1983-5: worst famine to hit the country in a century.
Northern Ethiopia had a death toll of over 400,000
Response highlighted issues with imagery and marked a turning point for publicity images and fundraising
• Media is a medium through which representations are formed.

Media, Images and Representation
The representation of the 'STARVING AFRICAN CHILD'
1990s ‘ethics of representation’ and ‘positive imagery’
Decline of public engagement
Populist appeals, simplistic representations and chequebook activism.
Emotion without understanding-will this minimise or maximize?
Effectiveness of fundraising publicity images and the media.
Images & Representation
The impact of Media
The professionalisation and commercialisation of NGOs.
Comparisons with alternative humanitarian NGOs

'In our information, publicity and advertising activities, we shall recognise disaster victims as dignified human beings, not hopeless objects' : 1994

Social media is beneficial regarding initial awareness and fund raising but in the long term perpetuates stereotypes.
There have been attempts to move past negative imagery, by encouraging an 'oneness', but its methods are debatable
Themes of distrust in contemporary society within media.
Complexities highlighted can be applied to humanitarianism broadly and are not unique to Save the Children.
Found in 1942- roots in WW2, Greek Crisis
Oxfam also uses depictions and derogatory advertising
Its campaign history is similar to that of Save the Children's.
Aside from the focus on education that all NGOS focus, have their been any real efforts to avoid this?
Campaign History
1978: move against poverty
Comic relief
"poverty porn"
Primary Source
UOB archive:
Save the Children Fund
Third World
Issue 2 (1970)
Ethiopian Crisis

"NGOs are formal (professionalized) independent societal organizations whose primary aim is to promote common goals at the national or international level."
(Martens, 2002)

Multiple layers of filtering representation and interpretation
Representations come to constitute facts
Dual logic of ‘difference’ and ‘oneness’
Stanley Cohen (2001)
Save the Children's archive was at the University of Birmingham
Negative imagery sparks reaction amongst the British public.
'Image Debate'
What is humanitarianism?
Media fundraising is beneficial in the short term but can result in long term complications.
2015 figure of £78 million, 30 years of history has culminated in £1 billion.
The rise of Television since 1945 has had a vast impact on the growth of humanitarian NGOs
Cultural transformation of the 1960s
New immediacy and awareness of distant suffering
Logos and branding
Commercialisation of humanitarianism
Social Media
High Profile Campaigns
Kony 2012
'If London were Syria'
Primary source: UOB archive
Primary Source:
Primary Sources:
Primary Source: UOB archive
"humanitarianism is the organized efforts
to alleviate suffering and protect
non-combatants, such as the wounded or civilians, "
What is NGOs?
Media sensationalism?
Full transcript