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Teri M Cell Comm


Teri Mitton

on 7 November 2018

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Transcript of Teri M Cell Comm

Cell Communication
Evolution of cell signaling
Communication between two mating yeast cells
Three steps
1. Exchange of mating factors
2. Mating
3. New hybrid cell
Signal Transduction
The process by which a signal on the cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response.
Transduction pathways in yeast and mammals are similar leading to the conclusion that cells have utilized these pathways for millions of years.
Local Signals
Synaptic signaling
Long distance Signals
Endocrine Signaling
Cell junctions
Three Stages of Cell Signaling
1. Reception
A signal molcule binds to a receptor protein causing it to change shape
Intercellular Receptors
Receptor proteins can be found in the cytoplasm or the nucleus and respond to small hydrophobic signal molecules that pass through the plasma membrane.
Receptors in the plasma membrane have specific binding sites on the outside of the cell and when specific molecules bind to those sites the proteins change shape and transmit signals into the cell. The original signal never enters the cells.
Three major types of plasma membrane receptors:
G-protein linked receptors
Tyrosine Kinases
Ion Channel Recptors
This is a chain of molecular interactions that leads to a specific cell response
Second Messengers
Many signal pathways have small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions that can quickly spread throughout a cell by diffusion and spread the message quickly through the cell
3 major types
Cyclic AMP (CAMP)
Calcium Ions
Inositol Triphosphate (IP3)
Responses can be cytoplasmic such as a change in plasma membrane protein channels, cell metabolism or cell shape.
Responses can lead to a nuclear reponse by activating or deactivating a gene.
3. Cellular Response
Signal Fine Tuning
Signal Specificity
Signal Amplification
Signal Efficiency/ Scaffolding Proteins
Signal Termination
Full transcript