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Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and the Rock Cycle

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by

Audrey Thompson

on 24 January 2013

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Transcript of Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and the Rock Cycle

By Audrey Thompson Earthquakes Earthquake Measurements The Rock Cycle Rock Types Elastic Rebound Theory Seismograph, which measures Earthquakes as they occur Igneous Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and the Rock Cycle Review 1) The pieces of crust begin normally.
2) Plates begin to slide past each other (transform boundary) This causes friction, which contributes to an earthquake.
3) The plates snap back into original shape, creating an earthquake as they move. The earthquake is caused by friction and the release of stress, just as composite volcanoes build up pressure and erupt violently.
4) The deformed plates return to their original shape. Where Earthquakes Occur Earthquakes occur along faults at transform boundaries. Earthquake waves spreading A fault, specifically the San Andreas Fault in California P and S Waves P Waves S Waves P Wave movement S Wave movement A video of P wave movment Video of both S wave movement and p wave movement -Primary waves
-Can travel through liquid in the Earth's interior, creating seismic waves on the other side of the Earth.
-Smallest amplitude on seismogram -Secondary waves
-Cannot travel through liquid
-Largest amplitude on seismogram Surface Waves V. Seismic Waves -Surface waves do not travel through the Earth
-Seismic waves do travel through the Earth Location Triangulation Method
-Locations of individual earthquakes taken
-Epicenter distance is measured and circled around the center
-Where the three circles intersect is the epicenter Time Travel Graph
-Curves of P and S waves are plotted.
-The S wave's curve is longer than the P wave's curve because of the actual amplitude of the wave being larger.
-Depending on the time the wave was perceived and the distance it was from the epicenter, you can find on the graph where the epicenter distance is. Magnitude Nomogram
-The left line shows distance.
-The right line shows the amplitude.
-Where the line that connects the two is created, where the line intersects with the middle line is shows the magnitude. This is a Richter Scale, showing the severity of an earthquake according to its magnitude. Seismogram, recorded by a seismograph. Due to the amplitude of these specific waves, this earthquake would have been more severe. Igneous Rock Weathering Sediments Erosion, Deposition Lithification Sedimentary Rock Metamorphism Metamorphic Rock Melting Magma Intrusive
-Felsic
-Cools slowly
-Large crystal size Extrusive
-Mafic
-Cools quickly
-Small crystal size Sedimentary Clastic Chemical Organic Solid sediment Dissolved minerals Decayed plants/animals Metamorphic Regional Metamorphism=large areas of intense pressure along convergent boundaries
Contact Metamorphism=Areas of intense heat from direct comtact with magma Sedimentary Igneous Metamorphic
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